• Created by: z_mills1
  • Created on: 24-03-15 12:12

Definitions and types of aggression

Aggression -> behaviour that harms another human being/intentional/outside the laws or rules of the game or activity

Hostile aggression

  • intention to harm outside the rules
  • often an emotional response to another performer/situation
  • sole purpose being to cause hurt/injury

Instrumental aggression

  • intends to harm as a means to another goal 
  • e.g. rugby tackle with great force with intention of making them fear you, primary motivation is to put them out of the game

Channelled aggression

  • positive form of aggression
  • when a performer is able to divert aggressive feelings into useful, positive actions i.e. working harder/better to concentrate

Assertive behaviour -> behaviour that involves the use of physical force but is within the rules/ethics of a sport and is therefore acceptable

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Theories of aggression

Instinct theory

  • aggression is innate not learnt
  • aggression builds within and has to be released
  • displacement theory - individuals wait for acceptable time to be aggressive e.g. sport 
  • catharsis - the release of pent-up feelings of aggression through harmless channels e.g. sport

Frustration-aggression hypothesis

  • blocked goal causes frustration
  • frustration causes aggression
  • release of aggression has cathartic effect - reducing levels of frustration/aggression

Aggressive cue theory

  • frustration builds but aggression only released when socially desirable cue/certain stimuli present 
  • e.g. boxing gloves (stimuli) act as a trigger for a boxer to become aggressive

Social learning theory

  • aggression in learnt by observing and copying others
  • reinforcement causes behaviour to be repeated
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Strategies to control aggression

  • Punish aggressive acts/fine player/drop for next match
  • Develop player’s code of conduct/promote fair play
  • Remove from situation/change position/substitution/change tactics
  • Encourage peer support/group pressure
  • Give role of responsibility/set performance goals/process goals
  • Highlight non-aggressive/positive role models
  • Reduce importance of event/avoid ‘win at all cost’ attitude
  • Stress management techniques e.g. positive self-talk/PMR
  • Rewards/positive reinforcement for assertive play
  • Develop fitness levels 
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