Aggression

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  • Created on: 06-05-14 12:51

SLT and Deindividuation

SLT and Deindividuation

AO1:

·         SLT - Direct experience Bandura 65 Vicarious Rein. 4 stages assimilate >confidence

·         Deindividuation - norms weak / group presence - Zimbardo 69 / Roger 89 private/public self-awareness

AO2:

·         Cultural - Wolfgang 67 'culture of violence' Kung San rarely agg / Mundugmor role model status / Watson 73 - deindividuation 23 warriors conceal identity

·         Ecological validity - Artificial bobo doll - not useful

·         Society - Bandura cartoon = credibility / exposure to film (free will issues) censorship of v games / James Buldger - reduce risk of reacting from violence Silent Witness 18m primary schools Birbeck Uni effective

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Institutional Aggression

AO1:

·         Situational model - internal factors / Deprivation theory Sykes 158 5 deprivations; Autonomy/C/HR/S / Zimbardo 07 Stanford prisons

·         Dispositional model - Irwin and Cressey 62 emanates from background / Race? Harer 06 58 US prisons - black inmates violence but low alcohol

AO2:

·         Contradict – Abu Gharib Mysers dispositional ‘bad apples’ / Zimbardo R/S/P situational ‘product of system’ – diff to establish / Criminal acts and agg? operationalise agg – 

·         Application: Wilson 98 12 prisoners at HMP Woodhill – env contribute to agg; noise/heat/crowding – PRISM Cooke and Johnstone 2012 ‘A look through the PRISM’ Scottish prisons apply J / The Hero Imagination Project Zimbardo training agg to get rid of dispositional factors’

·         Outdated: Sykes 58 inmate rights YET continuation of violence due to dispositional then

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Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms

AO1:

·         Neural– serotonin + dopamine Mann 90 35PP dexfenfluramine agg ^ / Lavine 97 ^ agg dopamine

·         Hormonal- Archer 91 230 males 5yrs test / Challenge Hyp Winffield 79  social challenges – cortisol Virkkunen 85 in violent offenders / Tennes 85 low cortisol

AO2:

·         Non-human studies L Raleigh 91 serotonin vervet monkeys / Popova 91 dogs inc serotonin – diff to generalise

·         The challenge hypothesis – Mazur 85 diff agg + dominance – cause and effect Zitzmann 06 TT = positive vigour – methods agg needs to be operationalised

·         Application: biochemistry influence agg – J sports / strips free will genetic eng + chemic cast. Diet and exercise better / EPI genetics and brain plasticity

·         Ethical: legal system bio makeup – morally inferior? 

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Genetic Factors

Genetic Factors

AO1:

 ·         Twin and adoption studies – MZ/DZ Coccaro 97 50% agg due to genes – predisposed trait to agg

  •   MAOA – low = agg / Brunner 93 male Dutch low MAOA /

AO2:

  • Dif to distinguish – Carey 77 meta-analysis 24 twins 50% variance genes+env younger age/ Brunner 93 poor parenting or role model due to agg
  • Apply: genetic engineering / chemical castration – ethics – ‘protect’ ‘dangerous’ label SFP Jahoda 54 22% Wed 6% Mon – led to prejudice for agg
  • Deterministic: ignores free will –legal system ‘morally inferior’ tentative to assume genes = agg
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Infidelity and Jealousy

AO1:

  • Evolutionary response – women fear invest / men fear cuckoldry – rationale to agg
  • Mate retention – Shackelford 05 use 2 retention verbal and direct guarding / Dobash 84 ‘negative inducements’ beat = less pretty / coercive tactics i.e. **** inc likelihood Daly + Wilson 98

AO2:

  • Deterministic: justified – agg adaptive Pipat Lueprasitkul 02 Thai warrant kill due to infidelity fears – men = morally inferior / danger preconceived men violent = justifies abuse + discriminates men
  • Cultural + retrospective: Buss 97 Yanomamo violence status – Kung San agg unforgivable – imposed etic / homosexual relationships Confer ‘inexplicable based on evo psy accounts’ = EVO+SLT stronger = more research
  • Biological evidence solve methodological: correlational Shackelford self-report/ desirability = conscious attitude diff to measure Milgram 66 use physiological – Takahasi 06 neural response to scenario – activation in amygdala – hypothetical but non-conscious measured
  • Prevent abuse? Understanding of tactics 
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Group Displays

Group Displays

AO1:

·         - Wong 89 xenophobia – natural selection – Podalini 98 Italian inter group agg sport / Samoa used mau siva tau 9 1 world cup / Evans and Rowe 02 games national sides = antisocial

·         - Intra group – self-inflict Sosis 04 CST = evo advantages / Sosis 05 external perm ritualistic

AO2:

·       -   Retrospective: agg adaptive? ignores change in dynamic society – war due env changes LeBlanc 04 not evolved adaption / useful Olympics 12? / Evans Rowe 02 little vio in intergroup displays  - agg diff to measure through time

·         - Reductionist: post-hoc ignores SIT – self-image – nature vs. nurture – eclectic

·         - Operationalise? Testosterone Dabbs 87 physiological before sport ‘confidence index score’ – evo not falsifiable – can’t measure go back / recommend longitudinal research 

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