Agg: Evolutionary explanations: Infidelity+Jealous

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  • Created by: imanilara
  • Created on: 21-02-16 18:42

Infidelity AO1

PROCESS OF BEING UNFAITHFUL TO A PARTNER AND HAVING SEXUAL ENCOUNTER W SOMEONE ELSE

According to Evol Exp:
-males more likely to be unfaithful bc they have inherited genes which drive them to have lots of sexual partners+increase their reproductive fitness
-females likely for 2 reasons: to seek the best genes-she may be with someone w good resources but not good genes-the best situation is be w one man who provides and the other who has the genes, AND if 2 men believe they are the father to the offspring that means double the protection and resources

Infidelity as an explanation of Aggression:
-Evol psychologists suggest that infidelity triggers unpleasant emotional state in the betrayed partner-perceived threat to the relationship-Buss et Al (1992) aggressive behaviours elicited to reduce this threat

Buunk 1996: males-intense sexual jealousy-evolutionary consequences of cuckoldry, females, jealousy over resources- emotional+financial resources for them+offspring 

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Jealousy AO1

STATE OF SUSPICION CAUSED BY REAL OR IMAGINED THREAT TO ONE'S STATUS
JEALOUSY FOUND IN ALL CULTURES-UNIVERSAL AND THEREFORE GENETIC/EVOLUTIONARY

Purpose of sexual jealousy is to ensure exclusivity in our mates
For males, lack of exclusivity can damage reprouductive fitness: cuckoldry+investing resources into offspring that isn't his-difficult to be sure of paternity+so he has to control female's autonomy-jealousy-this reduces cuckoldry because the aggressive male dissuades the female from being unfaithful
For femaleslack of exculsivity means resources shared amongst other women that could be given to her-in EEA women needed protection during gestation and relied on partner for survival-if they aren't there this threatens her offspring+her survival

Buss et al- sexual infidelity causes diff problems for men and women-sexual jealousy evolved due to this- men jealous of other men and women jealous of other women

Baker+Bellis 1996-men should be worried about cuckoldry-9% worldwide misattributed fatherhood

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Mate retention strategies AO1

STRATEGIES DESIGNED TO KEEP A MATE
-guarding
-making threats
-inflicting costs-loss of resources/abuse
-conferring benefits-using bribes of resources

Dale and Wilson said these are designed to keep a mate+jealousy drives these emotions-evolved to deal with paternal uncertainty

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AO2

Shackleford et al 2005:

-Questionnaire on 461 men and 560 women- all american+in heterosexual relationships 
-Ps asked about using mate retention techniques+how often each 26 different types of violence used against female partners 
-Men's use of guarding and negative costs positively correlated to violence scores 
-emotional manipulation also used+vigilance predicted violence against women
-age and relationship duration made no difference to trends

SUPPORTS LINK BETWEEN SEXUAL JEALOUSY, MATE RETENTION TECHNIQUES AND VIOLENCE TOWARDS WOMEN.

-high pop val in large sample, low pop val in cultural bias+heterosexual
-questionnaires do not measure behaviour due to social desriability effect-people will respond in ways that are favourable, particularly when the research is S.S-threat to internal validity
-it is useful in the real world-certain mate retention strategies are an indicator for violence+so can prevent it 

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AO2

Buss et al (1992): 
In the US, male students more concerned about sexual infidelity and females more concerned with emotional infidelity. Concern measured by galvanic skin response data and students asked to imagine scenes of infidelity-men showed more distress with sexual than emotional. --> cultural bias, and only students, but good operationalisation of stress, but imagined scenes of infidelity have low ecol val. supports idea that innate sex differences influence aggressive response to infidelity

Miller&Manner 2009:
examined the role individual differences play in chronic jealousy
- found that the innate sex differences are greater in individuals who have high chronic jealousy-they tend to worry about relationship threats-than those who are not high in cj. Suggests aggressive response to infidelity is influenced more by whether or not you are jealous and not if you are male or female 

Real World: social practices support the idea of controlling female reproductive behaviour- China 1 child rule, FGM, Hijab so women cannot be seen. 

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IDA

Gender bias- all studies look at male mate retention strategies and male violence on women, but archer 2000 suggests that women do carry out aggressive assaults on partners too-need research to see if there is a link between violence and female male retention strategies in the same way it is for men- Felson 1997- 2060 US murders found women equally likely as men to murder because of jealousy

SS research: evol explanations of aggressive behaviour in infidelity can be used to explain stalking and domestic violence. But it is dangerous, can we really say poor men are more likely to be violent (shackelford 2000) and it is ok to kill a wife rather than let her leave (Buss 2005)???

Deterministic: 
Evol suggests genes drive aggressive behaviour in infidel, but free will must be involved as not all relationships involve domestic violence when someone has been unfaithful. 

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