MANAGING AGEING POPULATIONS
- encouraging larger families
e.g. Swedish Govt. makes having children more manageable by giving both parents 18 months' paid leave.
should create a larger working pop. when children mature, which can provide more taxes for better pensions & service.
- raising retirement age
working pop. will be larger, therefore more will contribute to state pension fund & personal pensions for longer.
people will also claim state pension for less time.
- encouraging immigration of working-age people
e.g. recently Japan's increased nos. of foreign workers - not enough working-age Japanese to fill available jobs.
= increased working pop. - helps support ageging pop. by paying taxes.
- increasing health care provision.
large nos. of elderly puts pressure on health care systems.
this does't manage pop. change, but could help ease problem of poor health in the elderly.
MANAGING YOUTHFUL POPULATIONS.
- controlling BR
some overpopulated countries try to slow growth by introducing policies that limit no. of children coples can have.
e.g. China - 1 child policy 1979: thought to have prevented 300 million+ births.
- limiting immigration of younger people of reproductive age
= BR not increased by immigrants having kids
- encouraging family planning & contraception
Govts. can offer sex ed. & free contraception, allowing couples to plan & limit no. kids they have.
- increasing childcare provision
investment in more, better childcare = parents can work instead of having kids.
doesn't manage pop. change, but helps address problems of youthful pop.
MANAGING AGEING POPULATION IN THE UK C/S
UK - AGEING POP.
- like most wealthy & developed countries, UK pop. is ageing (a greying pop.)
- 2005: 16% UK pop were 65+ - this is expected to rise to 25% by 2041.
- increasing LE: between 1980-2006, LE rose by 2.8 yrs in women & 4 yrs in men.
current LE: 81.3 yrs - women, 76.9 yrs - men.
as people live longer, there's more elderly.
- baby booms: lots of babies born in 40s & 60s: after WW1 & WW2.
these generations are beginning to retire = more elderly.
- falling BR = fewer young people
therefore, proportion of elderly = greater.
PROBLEMS CAUSED BY AGEING POP.
- pressure on pension system
not enough working aged people to pay for adequate pension for retired pop.
today, 60% UK pop. (working age) are paying taxes that go towards pensions of 19% pop. (retirement age)
by 2030, only 56% pop. will be working age, but taxes they pay will have to pay for pensions of 27% of retirement age pop.
- more elderly living in poverty
state pension isn't v. large & many don't have other savings.
working pop. not large enough to provide better pensions.
- pressure on health service
older people need more medical care than younger.
e.g. average stay in hospital,2 005 for 75+ was 13 night
" " UK pop. as a whole was 8 nights.
MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN UK
- increased retirement age
- currently in UK: 65 for men, 60 for women.
will be raised to 68 for everyone by 2050.
people working for longer = increased working pop.
HELPS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: doesn't increase pop.
BUT, might mean more jobs needed as people work for longer.
This could hinder sustainable development if new jobs aren't provided in a sustainable way
e.g. building & working in new coal-powered power plants
wind turbine power plants.
- encouraging immigration of working age people.
- UK has allowed unlimited immigration of people from countries who joined EU in 2004 e.g. Poland.
2004 - 80% immigrants into UK from new EU countries were 34 or under = increased working pop.
ONLY SUSTAINABLE IF NEEDS OF NEW PEOPLE ARE MET SUSTAINABLY.
e.g. meeting increasing energy demand by increasing energy production from renewable sources, building energy-efficient homes: good insulation, natural heating systems.
- encouraging more women to have children
- new UK pension proposals: women won't lose out on state pensions if they take career breaks to have children.
- working family tax credits support those who return o work once children are born.
MAY ENCOURAGE COUPLES TO HAVE CHILDREN.
COULD INCREASE POPULATION.