AGEING POPULATIONS.

human geog.

HideShow resource information

MANAGING AGEING POPULATIONS

  • encouraging larger families
    e.g. Swedish Govt. makes having children more manageable by giving both parents 18 months' paid leave.
    should create a larger working pop. when children mature, which can provide more taxes for better pensions & service.
  • raising retirement age
    working pop. will be larger, therefore more will contribute to state pension fund & personal pensions for longer.
    people will also claim state pension for less time.
  • encouraging immigration of working-age people
    e.g. recently Japan's increased nos. of foreign workers - not enough working-age Japanese to fill available jobs.
    = increased working pop. - helps support ageging pop. by paying taxes.
  • increasing health care provision.
    large nos. of elderly puts pressure on health care systems.
    this does't manage pop. change, but could help ease problem of poor health in the elderly.
1 of 6

MANAGING YOUTHFUL POPULATIONS.

  • controlling BR
    some overpopulated countries try to slow growth by introducing policies that limit no. of children coples can have.
    e.g. China - 1 child policy 1979: thought to have prevented 300 million+ births.
  • limiting immigration of younger people of reproductive age
    = BR not increased by immigrants having kids
  • encouraging family planning & contraception
    Govts. can offer sex ed. & free contraception, allowing couples to plan & limit no. kids they have.
  • increasing childcare provision
    investment in more, better childcare = parents can work instead of having kids.
    doesn't manage pop. change, but helps address problems of youthful pop.
2 of 6

MANAGING AGEING POPULATION IN THE UK C/S

UK - AGEING POP.
- like most wealthy & developed countries, UK pop. is ageing (a greying pop.)
- 2005: 16% UK pop were 65+ - this is expected to rise to 25% by 2041.

WHY?
- increasing LE: between 1980-2006, LE rose by 2.8 yrs in women & 4 yrs in men.
current LE: 81.3 yrs - women, 76.9 yrs - men.
as people live longer, there's more elderly.

- baby booms: lots of babies born in 40s & 60s: after WW1 & WW2.
these generations are beginning to retire = more elderly.

- falling BR = fewer young people
therefore, proportion of elderly = greater.

3 of 6

PROBLEMS CAUSED BY AGEING POP.

  • pressure on pension system
    not enough working aged people to pay for adequate pension for retired pop.

    today, 60% UK pop. (working age) are paying taxes that go towards pensions of 19% pop. (retirement age)

    by 2030, only 56% pop. will be working age, but taxes they pay will have to pay for pensions of 27% of retirement age pop.

  • more elderly living in poverty
    state pension isn't v. large & many don't have other savings.
    working pop. not large enough to provide better pensions.
  • pressure on health service
    older people need more medical care than younger.
    e.g. average stay in hospital,2 005 for 75+ was 13 night
    " " UK pop. as a whole was 8 nights.
4 of 6

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN UK

  • increased retirement age
    - currently in UK: 65 for men, 60 for women.
    will be raised to 68 for everyone by 2050.
    people working for longer = increased working pop.

    HELPS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: doesn't increase pop.
    BUT, might mean more jobs needed as people work for longer.
    This could hinder sustainable development if new jobs aren't provided in a sustainable way
    e.g. building & working in new coal-powered power plants
    VS
    wind turbine power plants.

  • encouraging immigration of working age people.
    - UK has allowed unlimited immigration of people from countries who joined EU in 2004 e.g. Poland.
    2004 - 80% immigrants into UK from new EU countries were 34 or under = increased working pop.

    ONLY SUSTAINABLE IF NEEDS OF NEW PEOPLE ARE MET SUSTAINABLY.
    e.g. meeting increasing energy demand by increasing energy production from renewable sources, building energy-efficient homes: good insulation, natural heating systems.

5 of 6

  • encouraging more women to have children
    - new UK pension proposals: women won't lose out on state pensions if they take career breaks to have children.
    - working family tax credits support those who return o work once children are born.
    MAY ENCOURAGE COUPLES TO HAVE CHILDREN.

    COULD INCREASE POPULATION.

6 of 6

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Population change and migration resources »