theories of Imprisonment:Gills
Aim: effect on recidivism rates of a community based employment scheme
Method: content analysis, Canada around 23,500 individuals released 98-2005 January (95% males). Matched pair design on gender,risk level,release year , substance abuse ect. Two groups employment programme and unemployed.
employment programmes likely to remain on conditional release
70% employment group remained out compared to 55%
* Longer time for employment to return 37 months compared 11 months
Conclusions:employment based programmes play an important role in last few days of offenders sentence.Planning the offenders return to community increase likelihood of success.
theories of Imprisonment:Dooley
Aim: investigate all unnatural deaths that occurred in prisons in England & Wales.
Method:content analysis of police records.groups recorded as suicide were compared with non suicides.
Findings: 442 unnatural deaths,300 suicides other. More of suicide groups were on remand(not yet sentenced) most occurred at night.
Conclusions: increase in suicides and unnatural were due to overcrowding and prisoner stress.
theories of Imprisonment:Zimbardo
Aim: to investigate the situational explanation of guards and prisoners
Method: field experiment, independent measures design on sample 22 well- adjusted students. randomly allocated to guard or prisoner.
*guards and prisoners developed an increasingly negative attitude towards each other and themselves.
*guards express aggression verbally, 5 prisoner had to leave due to extreme depression
*ended after 6 days because of participants well-being
Conclusions:the researchers concluded that the behaviours displayed were due to situational factors rather than individual personality traits.
Alternative to prisons: Mair and May
Aim: the experience of offenders on probation orders across England & Wales
Method: 3200 offenders, randomly from 22 different probation offices (40% drop out rate). Interviews conducted independent researchers, questions mainly closed,likert scale and multiple choice.
Findings: 88% felt useful, 60% thought officer would help them, 37% probation would stop them re-offending.
Conclusions: probation is seen as useful by offenders, over third of offenders went on to re-offend.
Alternative to prisons: Sherman & Strang
Aim: restorative justice and measure its effectiveness in terms of re-offending
Method: content analysis 424 academics papers on RJ (secondary data). 36 studies compared re-offending rates for those who were part of restorative justice programmes ad those that were not.
Findings: RJ is more effective when there is a personal victims and work for violence and property crime. However RJ not effective in all cases.
Conclusions: strong evidence that RJ useful in some cases, support increase use with young, first time offenders.
Alternative to prisons: Eberhardt
Aim: investigate whether is support for the hypothesis
Method: analysis of the database of death-eligible cases in Philly, 44 cases black man killed a white victim. photographs of shown to naive raters, 4 secs rate facial features 1-11. 51 raters from Stanford university
Findings: 57% more stero black than 24% less stero, victum black no significant effect found.
Conclusions: suggest that stereotypically looking black men are seen as some how more "Death Worthy"
treatment programmes: Cann
Aim: cognitive skills programmes were effective in terms of lower re-offending rates for a sample of women prisoners.
Method: 180 female offenders, independent measures either CBT: reasoning and rehabilitation(R&R) or enhanced thinking skills (ETS)compared with 540 who did not receive therapy. re-conviction rates examined after 2 years of release.
Findings: No significant difference found between groups, R&R slightly worse and re-convicted earlier.
Conclusion: Cann suggested programme ineffective because:women offend for different reasons to men cognitive therapies developed with male prisoners, inappropriate to women.therapy not effectively delivered.psychologist suggest the reason criminals re-offend is because of faulty thinking processes, if these are broken then progress can be made to a non- criminal lifestyle.
treatment programmes: Ireland
Aim: whether anger management programmes work with young male offenders
Method: natural experiment, 50 prisoners who completed CALM and 37 who were suitable but not taken course. Given cognitive behavioural interview, prison officers complete checklist 29 anger behaviour with scores of 0-2 week before interview. prisoners complete 53 questions in questionnaire on anger management.
Findings: prisoners completed CALM rated lower on anger questionnaire and by officers than control group. 92% showed improvement on at least one measure of aggression and anger. 8% deteriorated on both measures.
Conclusion: short term seems effective but no long term data.8% got worse..
CALM is a cognitive behavioural programme aimed at prisoners who have problems controlling their anger( emotions) which is an important part of their offending behaviour.
treatment programmes: Wheatley
Aim: to evaluate the effectiveness of ear acupuncture
Method:350 prisoners from six high security prisons, received acupuncture and standard care FOCUS, control group just FOCUS. two qualified practitioners, group of 10-15 relaxed settings, needles placed in 5 points on ear and left to relax for 40 minutes.qualitative and quantitative data collected.
Findings: 70% reduction in drug related incidents 6 months after treatment,32% reduction in positive drug test (voluntary). qualitative data prisoners reported improved relaxation, better coping skills reduced cravings for nicotine and health improvements. prison officers report the wing was calmer.
Conclusion: wheatley believe there is enough evidence to expend the delivery of the programme, acupuncture wok as a complementary therapy with other programmes.