- Created by: sasmith05
- Created on: 16-06-19 17:14
The end of History?
Was the Cold War the end of History?
Religion, Nationalism and ideology were still causing world conflicts, therefore, the world was not free of any tension.
Examples of hostility caused by:
- Northern Ireland - Catholic Nationalists and Protestant Unionists conflict
- Rwanda - Genocide by the Hutu people against the Tutsis
- China - communist party remained firmly in charge
The end of History? Pt.2
- Claimed that it was the end of history
- Argues that western liberal democracy had triumphed and that the world had now realised that history was now over
Reason for optimism:
- America had won the cold war
- Communism in Russia had collapsed
Then the 9/11 event occurred
11th of September 2001, two hijacked jet aircraft was deliberately crashed into the Twin Towers in New York. The towers were the buildings for the world trade centre.
3000people were killed
After this, the optimism quickly subsided
The terrorist attack was by a group called the Al-Qaeda
Where did the Al-Qaeda come from?
A terrorist group in Afghanistan called the Mujahadeen were supported by the Americans with training, weapons, money, food and medical supplies. The Americans aided them to become the powerful group that they were so they didn't have to be directly involved in the conflict.
This terrorist group then evolved into the Al-Qaeda.
Born in Pakistan, he is the founding member of al-Qaeda
He believes that Islam was under threat by enemies everywhere.
It was a Muslim's responsibility to resist this
They should wage war against:
- Western democracies
- Jews and the state of Israel
- Muslim governments not being strict enough or co-operating with al-Qaeda's enemies
By attacking New York you are getting right to the heart of Western Democracy
His full name is Osama bin Laden.
He was a founder of the al-Qaeda.
He was a Saudi Arabian until 1994 when he got exiled.
His family is very wealthy.
Exile - being barred from one's native country
- The Saudi King Rejected bin Laden's offer of military support and instead accepted the US military help.
- This disgusted him so he spoke out against the King.
- He was forced into exile and stripped of his Saudi citizenship in 1994.
- His family disowned him.
Why did al-Qaeda Attack the US?
They believed that the US was a threat to Islam.
This is because American troops were in Saudi Arabia (the holiest place for Muslims). No one that is non-Islamic is allowed to stay there therefor the troops had to leave. The Terrorist group got offended when the troops didn't leave.
The US response
The response of Americans to attacks:
- Loss of trust in the government
Impacts on everyday life
- Security became tighter
- Difficult lives for American Muslims
- Felt targeted
- Got searched for no reason
- Feelings of hostility towards the rest of the world
- 'America should look after America'
The US War on Terror
The Immediate response
Swift and devastating
US-led forces joined with Afghan opponents of the Taliban in a massive assault on Afghanistan on October 2001
George W. Bush demanded the Taliban leader (Mullah Omar) to turn bin Laden into the US authorities - it was refused.
Actions of the US and allies from October 2001
November 2001 - Land campaign began
Aerial bombings - Camps and bases destroyed
Opposing forces fell back to maintain strongholds
Tora Bora - The Battle of Tora Bora was a military engagement that took place in the cave complex of Tora Bora, eastern Afghanistan, from December 2001.
The US War on Terror Pt.2
Result of military campaigns:
al-Qaeda and Taliban defeated
bin Laden and Mullah Omar free to Pakistan
bin Laden assassinated in 2001
2014 Islamic State emerges
Consequences of The War on Terror
- 2 bombs almost simultaneously
- 200 suspects arrested
- 202 killed
Madrid train bombing
- 10 bombs
- 191 killed
London 7/7 attacks
- suicide bombers
- public transport
- 52 dead
- 700 injured
Consequences of The War on Terror Pt.2
Tourist resorts in Egypt
- 88 killed
- Targeted railway stations and luxury hotels
- 166 dead
- 74 killed