After the Cold War

  • Created by: sasmith05
  • Created on: 16-06-19 17:14

The end of History?

Was the Cold War the end of History?

Religion, Nationalism and ideology were still causing world conflicts, therefore, the world was not free of any tension.

Examples of hostility caused by:


  • Northern Ireland - Catholic Nationalists and Protestant Unionists conflict


  • Rwanda - Genocide by the Hutu people against the Tutsis


  • China - communist party remained firmly in charge
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The end of History? Pt.2

Francis Fukuyama

  • Claimed that it was the end of history 
  • Argues that western liberal democracy had triumphed and that the world had now realised that history was now over
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American Optimism

Reason for optimism:

  • America had won the cold war
  • Communism in Russia had collapsed

Then the 9/11 event occurred

11th of September 2001, two hijacked jet aircraft was deliberately crashed into the Twin Towers in New York. The towers were the buildings for the world trade centre. 

3000people were killed

After this, the optimism quickly subsided

The terrorist attack was by a group called the Al-Qaeda

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Where did the Al-Qaeda come from?

Brief History

A terrorist group in Afghanistan called the Mujahadeen were supported by the Americans with training, weapons, money, food and medical supplies. The Americans aided them to become the powerful group that they were so they didn't have to be directly involved in the conflict.

This terrorist group then evolved into the Al-Qaeda.

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Abdullah Azzam

Born in Pakistan, he is the founding member of al-Qaeda


He believes that Islam was under threat by enemies everywhere.

It was a Muslim's responsibility to resist this 

They should wage war against:

  • Western democracies
  • Communism
  • Jews and the state of Israel
  • Muslim governments not being strict enough or co-operating with al-Qaeda's enemies

By attacking New York you are getting right to the heart of Western Democracy

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bin Laden

His full name is Osama bin Laden.

He was a founder of the al-Qaeda. 

He was a Saudi Arabian until 1994 when he got exiled.

His family is very wealthy.


Exile - being barred from one's native country

  • The Saudi King Rejected bin Laden's offer of military support and instead accepted the US military help.
  • This disgusted him so he spoke out against the King.
  • He was forced into exile and stripped of his Saudi citizenship in 1994.
  • His family disowned him.
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Why did al-Qaeda Attack the US?

They believed that the US was a threat to Islam.

This is because American troops were in Saudi Arabia (the holiest place for Muslims). No one that is non-Islamic is allowed to stay there therefor the troops had to leave. The Terrorist group got offended when the troops didn't leave. 

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The US response

The response of Americans to attacks:

  • Anger
  • Fear
  • Confliction
  • Shock
  • Loss of trust in the government

Impacts on everyday life

  • Security became tighter
  • Difficult lives for American Muslims
    • Felt targeted
    • Got searched for no reason

Lasting effects

  • Feelings of hostility towards the rest of the world
  • 'America should look after America'
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The US War on Terror

The Immediate response

Swift and devastating

US-led forces joined with Afghan opponents of the Taliban in a massive assault on Afghanistan on October 2001

George W. Bush demanded the Taliban leader (Mullah Omar) to turn bin Laden into the US authorities - it was refused.

Actions of the US and allies from October 2001

November 2001 - Land campaign began

Aerial bombings - Camps and bases destroyed

Opposing forces fell back to maintain strongholds

Tora Bora - The Battle of Tora Bora was a military engagement that took place in the cave complex of Tora Bora, eastern Afghanistan, from December 2001.

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The US War on Terror Pt.2

Result of military campaigns:

al-Qaeda and Taliban defeated

bin Laden and Mullah Omar free to Pakistan

bin Laden assassinated in 2001

2014 Islamic State emerges

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Consequences of The War on Terror

Barley bombings

  • 2 bombs almost simultaneously
  • 200 suspects arrested
  • 202 killed

Madrid train bombing

  • 10 bombs
  • 191 killed

London 7/7 attacks

  • suicide bombers
  • public transport
  • 52 dead
  • 700 injured
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Consequences of The War on Terror Pt.2

Tourist resorts in Egypt

  • 88 killed

Mumbai attacks

  • Targeted railway stations and luxury hotels
  • 166 dead


  • 74 killed
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