African Americans civil rights

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Public facilities Supreme Court

HENDERSON V US 1950

Abolished segregation in railroad dining carts

BOYNTON V VIRGINIA 1960

Desegregated interstate bus terminals, the ruling was tested by the freedom rides

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Education Supreme Court

SWEATT V PAINTER 1950

Separate Texas Law school, it was not separate but equal

MCLAURIN V OKLAHOMA 1950

Segregated facilities and education in Oklahoma Uni not allowed

BROWN V BOARD OF EDUCATION 1954

Overturned Plessey and declares that segregated education was psychologically harmful and unconstitutional (BROWN 2 1955 With all deliberate speed)

COOPER V AARON 1958

states could not pass legislation to remove ruling of Brown case

SWANN V CHARLOTTE MECKLENBURG 1971

supports affirmative action of bussing children to school to achieve integration

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Citizenship (Voting) Supreme Court

SMITH V ALLWRIGHT 1944

Outlawed white primaries (voting for presidents to be elected)

BAKKE CASE 1978

White challenge to affirmative action but the SC upholds support for affirmative action plan

PLESSEY V FERGUSON 1896

Effectively legalised segregation, court ruled separate but equal and this was not overturned till 1954

GUINN V US

Grandfather clauses outlawed in certain states (Maryland and Oklahoma)

SLAUGHTERHOUSE CASES 1873

Against the 14th Amendment, rights should stay under state control not federal

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Public facilities Events/campaigns

MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT 1955

Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white person, therefore arrested and led to Browder v Gayle which outlaws segregation on buses

FREEDOM RIDES 1961

Started by CORE and testing Boynton v Virginia (integration of interstate buses), SNCC also joined campaign, racists mobbed and bombed protest which gave AA media coverage

ALBANY 1962

Trying to desegregate public facilities, MLK invited to help, no media coverage of violence towards them, this was Pre-emptied by police and governed so all violence was suspended the campaign failed and many lost faith in MLK

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Education events/campaigns

LITTLE ROCK 1957

Faubus ordered guards to block integration of blacks in Little Rock high school, Eisenhower forced to intervene as it was violent and had troops escort and integrate in the school

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Citizenship (Voting) Events/ Campaigns

GREENSBORO 1960

Start of sit ins campaigns (Woolworths), led to set up of SNCC and the signing of a Covil rights act in 1960 by Eisenhower

BIRMINGHAM 1963

SCLC & MLK mass protest about cities segregation system, but we're attacked by police dogs and hoses as ordered by Bull Connor, media outrage

RODENEY KING AND LA RIOTS 1992

King was beaten by four white police, this still showed the white hostility, discrimination and violence of authorities against AA

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Employment Campaigns/ Events

MARCH ON WASHINGTON 1963

Sparked by nationwide outrage by Birmingham and Alabama campaigning for jobs and freedom! Very successful had some white support, peaceful speeches and methods, MLK

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Congress/ legislature Public facilities

JIM CROWE LAWS 1877

They were state and local laws which were de jure discrimination regarding public facilities which carried on till mid 1960s "separate but equal"

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Citizenship (voting) Congress/legislature

FREEDMANS BUREAU 1865

A govt body that helped blacks economically after they were freed as slaves during reconstruction i.e housing, ed, health care etc, intended to last one year, congress discontinued funding and in 1877 was closed down.

13th AMENDMENT 1865

Abolishes slavery, however southern states bring in black codes to restrict the freed

14th AMENDMENT

gave citizenship and equal protection under law

15th AMEDNMENT 1870

Gave blacks vote however states put in place gra father clauses and literacy tests to prevent them voting

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Citizenship Congress/legislature continued...

CIVIL RIGHTS ACT 1964

Speed desegregation in all areas, law suits could be filed to speed deseg up, permanent FEPC

VOTING RIGHTS ACT 1965

Conditions for blacks to vote were removed and could register to vote on equal basis to whites

EQUAL OPPORTUNITY ACT 1972

More guidelines for courts to follow

CIVIL RIGHTS RESTORATIN ACT 1988

All aspects of CR legislation had to be complied with for funds

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Employment Congress/legislature

ROOSEVELTS NEW DEAL 1933
Gave some financial aid to blacks. The WPA, NYA, and CCC relief programs allocated 10% of their budgets to blacks, however ND predominantly -ve for AA the NRA offered whites the first crack at jobs, but authorized separate and lower pay scales for blacks? In farming the AAA's policies forced more than 100,000 blacks off the land in 1933 and 1934

AFFIRMATIVE ACTON 70s

Quoted a number of AA that had to be employed in industry this increased employment

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Education Congress/legislature

AFFIRMATIVE ACTION 70s

Make allowances for the lack of opportunity blacks had in past which promoted equal educational opportunities. Enforced by Nixon, also was the bussing of children to integrate schools

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Employment Supreme Court

GRIGGS V DUKE POWER 1971

Not allowed to ask for a diploma or literacy tests on employment of blacks on account of past educational discrimination

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