Addiction

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KEY WORDS

INITIATION = the process where individuals begin their addiction,                                                             affected by beliefs and social factors

MAINTENANCE = people continue to behave addictively even if the consequences                                          are adverse

RELAPSE = when symptoms of disorder begin to reoccur after seemly                                                   being cured

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Biological Model of Addiction

INITIATION - GAMBLING

GENETIC PREDISPOSITION TO ENGAGING IN ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOUR

SHAH ET AL - EVIDENCE OF GENETIC TRANSMISSION OF GAMBLING ADDICTION IN MALES

BLACK ET AL - 1ST DEGREE RELATIVES OF PATH. GAMBLERS > LIKELY TO EXHIBIT SAME GAMBLING BEHAVIOUR COMPARED TO DISTANT RELATIVES

INITATION - SMOKING

GENES CAN INFLUENCE SMOKING

CHILDREN OF SMOKERS LIKELY TO SMOKE

SHIELDS - STUDIED TWIN PAIRS REARED APART, FOUND ONLY 9 WERE DISCONDANT FOR SMOKING BEHAVIOUR

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Biological Model of Addiction

SPECIFIC GENES

  • DRD2 - VARIANT FOUND IN 50% OF SMOKERS AND 50% OF PATH. GAMBLERS
  • LINKED TO LOWER LEVELS OF DOPAMINE RECEPTOS
  • NEED TO SEEK REWARD 

THARGERSON ET AL - IDENTIFIED SPECIFIC GENE VARIANT ON CHROMOSOME 15. INFLUENCED NUMBER OF CIGARETTES SMOKED PER DAY AND LIKELIHOOD OF DEVELOPING SMOKING RELATED DISEASE. SUGGESTS GENES MAY INFLUENCE DEPENDENCY ON NICOTINE 

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Biological Model of Addiction

EVALUATION OF GENES

  • VULNERABILITY IDENTIFIED - DOES NOT MEAN BEHAVIOUR WILL DEVELOP
  • REDUCTIONIST
  • UNLIKELY TO BE ONE GENE - IF SO, ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTION
  • CAN EXPLAIN WHY SOME BECOME ADDICTED + OTHERS DO NOT WHEN FACED WITH SAME STRESSORS
  • SHOULD NOT IGNORE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS E.G. SLT
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Biological Model of Addiction

MAINTENANCE - GAMBLING

  • RESEARCH INTO GAMBLING FOUND ^ LEVELS OF DOPAMINE + NORADRENALINE WHEN GAMBLING + AT ANTICIPATORY STAGE
  • PARIS ET AL - PATH. GAMBLING MAY BE ASSOCIATED WITH UNDERACTIVE STRESS RESPONCE

MAINTENANCE - SMOKING

  • NICOTINE AFF. BRAIN CHEM, ACTIVATES NICOTINE ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS WHICH RELEASE DOPAMINE 
  • = SHORT TERM PLEASURE... WHEN NICOTINE LEAVES SYS. INFLUENCES MOOD + CONCENTRATION - HAVE TO SMOKE AGAIN TO FEEL PLEASURE
  • BUKA ET AL - SMOKING IN PREG. DID NOT ^ RISK OF INITIATION IN OFFSPRING BUT IF THEY DID START > LIKELY TO BECOME ADDICTED
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Biological Model of Addiction

EVALUATION OF MAINTENANCE

  • NEGLECTS OTHER DETER. FACTORS E.G. SLT 
  • EXPLAINS INDIVIDUAL DIFF. 
  • RELATE TO SENSATION SEEKING - > LIKELY TO GAMBLE
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