Adaptations

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  • Created by: victoria
  • Created on: 16-04-13 21:32

Adaptations

Adaptations to environment

Conditions in different environments and vary gratly. Desserts are hot and dry environments.The Arctic is cold.

There are animals that can survive in each of these environments- but they must be adapted to suvive.

An adaptation is a feature of an animal's body which helps it to live in its environment- making it better to compete for limited resorces.


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Coping with extreme temperatures 

Organisms can survive in extremes of temperature- demonstrating adaptations that enable them to survive.

Biochemical adaptations 

1- Bacteria living in hot water spirngs and geysers in volcanic areas can survive temperatures above 80oC - Thier enzymes work well at these temperatures- normal enzymes would be destroyed.

2- Some organisms have to withstand extreme cold- Periwinkles living on the beach produce glycerol as an antifreeze in winter. Carrots in frosty soils produce a protein- based antifreeze. 

Physiological adaptations

Penguins living on ice have a special blood flow system called a counter-current exchange system. 

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Specialists- well adapted survives the well in its particular enviroment- but can not nesessarily survive as well/ at all in anther environment. 

Generalists- Able to live in a range of habitats but are easily out- competed. 

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PLANTS 

Plants need to adapt to compete for limited resources. 

stressful environments- environment always changing- animals have to cope with environmental stress- stress includes changes in temperature and water availability. 

Plants ( such as cacti) in areas where the water is scarce may have a reduced surface area to reduce amount of water lost 

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Animal behaviour

Animals use  behaviour patterns to cope with environmental stress, such as temperature changes and water loss:

Migrateion- move to more favourable conditions 

Hibernation- hibernate when temperature falls, slowing down thier life processes and entering a dorment state until conditions improve.

Sun Basking- some cold blooded animals ( like crocidiles) lie in the morning sun to warm up their bodies after a cold night- allowing them to become active- in hot weather they cool off in water. 

Water storage- some animals, like camels can drink and store huge quantities of water when they find it. 

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