Animal Adaptations

Animals need to adapt to survive in the areas they live in. Animals who live in cold climates (e.g. The Arctic) have thick fur and fat under the skin, also know as blubber, to keep them warm. Some animals in the arctic (e.g. Arctic Fox or Hare) are white in the winter and brown in the summer. This camoflages them so they are not easily seen.

Bigger Animals have smaller surface area to volume. This means that they can conserve energy more easily but it is also more difficult to cool. 

in hot dry conditions (desert) animals are adapted to conserve water and to stop them getting too hot. E.g. camels can drink a large amount of water at a time and survive off it for two weeks. Animals in the desert may hunt or feed during the night so that they remain cool during the day.

Hot and cold climate adaptations:

  •  Hot Climate  - Camels have big flat feet to tread the sand. Fennec Foxes have a large ear surface area for the heat to spread across.
  • Cold Climate - Thick layer of blubber under the skin. Polar bears have white fur for camoflage.
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Adapt and Survive

To survive and reproduce organisms need materials from their surroundings and other organisms living there.

Plants need light, carbon dioxide, water, oxygen and nutrients, such as mineral ions from the soil.   Animals need food from other organisms, water and oxygen.

Different microorganisms need different materials. Some microorganisms are like plants, others are like animals and some do not need oxygen or light to survive.

Adapations allow organisms to survive in a particular habitat, even when the conditions are extreme, e.g. extremely hot, very salty or at high pressure.

Plants are adapted obtain light and other materials in order to photosynthesise correctly. 

Animals may be plant eating (herbivores) or eat other animals (carnivores). Thier teeth are adapted to their diet. 

Extremophiles are microorganisms which are adapted to live in conditions where enzymeswon't usually work because they would denature.

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Plant Adaptations

Plants need light water, space and nutrients to survive. Plants need to conserve and collect water. They can lose water as water vapour through holes in their leaves called the stomata.

water can be collected if the plant has an extensive root system. Some cacti expand in order to store water, this is called a swollen stem. Also some plants have very small waxy leaves which help conserve the water. Others have adapted to collect water using extensive root systems.

Plants are eaten by animals. Some plants have developed thorns, poisonus chemicals and warning colours to put animals off.

All plants compete for water, nutrients and light. For example, in woodland some smaller plants e.g. snowdrops, flower befor ethe trees leaf. This ensures they get enough of needed resources.

Some plants spread their seeds over a wide area so that they do not compete with themselves.

  • Some of these plants use animals to spread their fruits and seeds.
  • Some plants use the wind or mini explosions to spread their seeds.
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