Surface area to volume Ratio

  • Small objects have a large surface area compared to the volume. This gives them a large ratio of surface to volume.
  • Larger objects have small surface area compared to the volume so they have a small surface area to volume ratio.
  • The bigger the animal, the smaller the Surface area: volume ratio.
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  • Air pollution: Burning fuels creates CO2 and sulphur dioxide. Cow and rice fields create methane.
  • Water Pollution: Acid rain, persticides, oil spills, chemical and sewage waste etc. cause water pollution.
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Measuring pollution

  • Non-living indicators: these measure variables such as temperature, Ph or oxygen levels.
  • Living indicators: The rat-tailed maggot has adapted to live in places where there is very little oxygen. The maggots have a long, tail-like tube, which is hollow. This acts like a snorkel, allowing the maggot to breathe in air containing oxygen from above the polluted water.
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Seed dispersal

  • Wind (Dandelions): Seeds are light so can be carried far away from the parent plant by wind.
  • Water (Coconut trees): Trees grow over water so the seeds can be carried away by water.
  • Birds and Animals (Sunflower): These plants look very appleaing so animals and birds eat them or approach them, taking some of the seeds away and later dropping the seeds further away and also may provide fertiliser.
  • Fur and feathers ( Sea holly): The seeds cling to animal fur to be transported away from the parent plant.
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Changes in distribution/population

  • The distribution/population might change because of climate change or lack of food in one area.
  • If the food or habitat space of an organism is taken, it may not survive or be able to reproduce.
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Pollution in a stream

  • Sewage: The bacteria in the sewage takes up the oxygen so other organisms living in the area dont get enough oxygen.
  • Acid Rain: Turns the water acidic and if the Ph of a stream is too low, it cannot support aquatic life.
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Competition between organisms

  • Interspecific Competition: Organisms from different species compete- for food, territory etc
  • Intraspecific Competition: Organisms from the same species compete- for food, territory, mates etc.
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Adaptations in animals

  • Desert Animals: Thick outer skin to reduce moisture loss, body designed to store water, excrete less urine, nocturnal.
  • Arctic Animals: Thick fur and layers of skin, large feet to not sink into the snow, nostrils can close so no water gets in, high body temperature, penguins may huddle.
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Adaptations in Plants

Desert Plants: Water is stored in stem and leaves, long and deep roots to absord more water, waxy coating reduces water loss.

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  • Thermophiles: An organism that can survive in extremely high temperatures and some with high levels of sulfur, acidic water or alkaline springs.
  • Psychrophiles: An organism that can survive in very cold places.
  • HalophilesAn organism that can survive in incredibly salty places (5 to 10 times an ocean's saltiness)
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