ADAPTATION FOR SURVIVAL

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KEY WORDS

ADAPTATIONS:

LIVING ORGANISMS HAVE THESE SPECIAL FEATURES WHICH HELP THEM SURVIVE

EXTREMOPHILES:

ORGANISMS WHICH SURVIVE AND REPRODUCE IN THE MOST DIFFICULT CONDITIONS 

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SURVIVE AND REPRODUCE

IN ORDER TO SURVIVE, PLANTS NEED LIGHT, CARBON DIOXIDE, WATER, OXYGEN AND NUTRIENTS IN ORDER TO PRODUCE GLUCOSE ENERGY

FOR SURVIVAL, ANIMALS NEED FOOD FROM OTHER LIVING ORGANISMS, WATER AND OXYGEN

 MICROORGANISMS NEED A RANGE OF THINGS, SOME OF THEM ARE LIKE ANIMALS AND OTHERS LIKE PLANTS. SOME MICROORGANISMS DO NOT NEED OXYGEN OR LIGHT TO SURVIVE.

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PLANT ADAPTATIONS

  • IN ORDER TO SURVIVE, PLANTS NEED: LIGHT, WATER, SPACE AND NUTRIENTS

PLANT ADAPTATIONS FOR DRY CONDITIONS INCLUDE:

  • REDUCING SURFACE AREA OF LEAVES EG. CURLED LEAVES 
  • HAVING WATER STORAGE TISSUES
  • HAVING EXTENSIVE ROOT SYSTEMS 
  • SOME HAVE LEAVES WITH THICK CUTICLES TO STOP EVAPORATION

EXAMPLE: CACTI

  • LEAVES REDUCED TO SPINES WITH A VERY SMALL SURFACE AREA
  • SHARP SPINES STOP THEM FROM BEING EATEN BY PREDATORS
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ANIMAL ADAPTATIONS

COLD CLIMATE:

  • SMALL SURFACE  AREA TO VOLUME 
  • INSULATING LAYERS
  • THICK LAYER OF FAT
  • THICK FUR
  • SMALL EARS

DRY CLIMATE:

  • LARGE SURFACE AREA TO VOLUME  
  • THIN FUR
  • LITTLE BODY FAT
  • LARGE, THIN EARS
  • FINE AND SILKY FUR

CAMOUFLAGE IS IMPORTANT FOR BOTH PREDATORS AND PREY

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COMPETITION IN LIVING ORGANISMS

ANIMAL COMPETITION:

ANIMALS COMPETE FOR FOOD, TERRITORY AND MATES, THEIR ADAPTATIONS MAKE THEM BETTER COMPETITORS

PLANT COMPETITION:

PLANTS COMPETE FOR LIGHT, WATER AND NUTRIENTS AS WELL AS SPACE.

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MEASURING ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

ANIMALS AND PLANTS ARE ADAPTED TO COPE WITH SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THEIR ENVIRONMENT EG. THORNS, POISON AND WARNING COLOURS

ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES CAN BE CAUSED BY LIVING OR NON LIVING FACTORS, EXAMPLE OF LIVING FACTOR EG LIVING ORGANISMS FOR EXAMPLE KOALA BEARS ARE ONLY FOUND NEAR EUCALYPTUS TREES. NON LIVING FACTORS INCLUDE OXYGEN LEVELS- SALMON ONLY LIVE IN WATER WITH LOTS OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN

ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES CAN BE MEASURED BY USING NON LIVING INDICATORS  (USING FACTORS LIKE OXYGEN LEVELS AND TEMPERATURE)

LIVING ORGANISMS CAN BE USED AS INDICATORS OF POLLUTION EG. LICHEN- ONLY GROW  WHERE THERE IS LITTLE AIR POLLUTION

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