Organisms are adapted to survive in different conditions. Over many generations, these adaptions have come about through variation. Variation involves small changes between organisms which allow it to compete better for survival
Types of Adaptation in Cold Climates
An example of adaptation focusing on the animal polar bear:
- a white appearance as camouflage
- thick layer of fat and fur for warmth
- a small surface arean, decreasing heat loss
- a greasy coat, which sheds water.
Types of Adaptation in Extreme Climates
Some organisms are adapted to extreme conditions like deep sea hydrothermal vents. The pompeii is adapted to this by:
- using a thick layer of bacteria to protect it from heat
- hinding inside a papery tube can protect it from predators
Changes in the Environment
Changes in the environment can be caused by living and non-living things affecting a certain area. Examples of abiotic changes (non-living) include:
- temperature change
- weather change
- pH level
Examples of biotic changes (living) include:
Biodiversity is the number of different species in a given area or 'specific richness'. It is vital for supporting life on Earth and is the foundation of all healthy ecosystems.
Evolution is the process by which changes occur in the heritable characteristics (genes) or a population over successive generations. Evolution results in diversity at every level (from genes to species)
Variation is caused by both genes and the environmenbt, but only variation caused by genes can be passed on to offspring.
Theory of Evolution
Charles Darwin stated that "all living organisms have evolved from simplier life forms. This process has come by natural selection."