what are the structures of acid anhydrides


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what is the structure of acyl chlorides


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what is the structure of amides


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how do you name Acyl Chlorides

  • ends in '-oyl chloride'
  • CH3CH3COCl = propanoyl chloride
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how do you name acid anhydrides

  • if both the R and R' groups are the same the 'root' of the name only appears once e.g. ethanoic anhydride
  • if the R and R' groups are different, list the roots in alphabetical order e.g. ethanoic propanoic anhydride 
  • name from the original acid 
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what nucleophiles react with anhydrides and acyl c

  • water
  • alcohols
  • NH3 (Ammonia)
  • amines (RNH2)
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what are the key mark points of nuclephillic mecha

1st arrow from lone pair on nucleophile to the C=O

2nd arrow from the C=O bond onto the oxygen 

3rd arrow from oxygen reforming the C=O double bond 

4th arrow from C-Cl bond onto Cl

5th arrow from Nu-H bond onto the Nu 

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