Acts of Parliament

Brief revision notes for acts of Parliament

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People who sit here are MP's. They are elected by public


Made up of 92 hereditary peers, Life peers, Law Lords and most senior bishops in Church of England.



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Separation of powers

These state that three major legal bodies of the state are kept distinct and seperate from one another allowing each to control and regulate the other.

EXECUTIVE GOVERNMENT: prime minister and cabinet introduce laws

JUDICARY: judges apply and interprete the law

LEGISLATIVE: parliament are the supreme law maker - House of lords - House of commons - Monarch

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Influences on law making

PRESSURE GROUPS - now accepted in public - civil partnership act 2004

SPECIFIC EVENTS - change in attitudes - fire arms act 1997

ECHR - accordance to European rights - human rights act 1988

EU LAW - match other countries - sex discrimination act 1986

GOVERNMENT MANIFESTOS - what promised during elections - crime and disorder act 1998

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PRIVATE BILL: specific areas or sections of the population

PUBLIC BILL: matters of public policy

PRIVATE MEMBERS BILL: individual members of parliament - 10 minute proposals

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GREEN PAPER AND WHITE PAPER - draft ideas and firm proposal

DRAFT BILL - baby bill

FIRST READING - formal introduction

SECOND READING - main debate

COMMITTE STAGE - examine bill in detail

REPORT STAGE - amendments

THIRD READING - final debate


ROYAL ASSENT - formality

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Parliamentary Soverignty

Parliament is the supreme law maker

statutes must be applied by the courts and take precedent over common law

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  • RENTON COMMITTE - over elaborated acts with obscure and complex language, lack of clear connection and illogical internal structure.
  • lack of accessibility - difficult to discover which have been brought into force
  • slow process
  • open to debate and criticsm before being passed
  • democratic process
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