Acquiring movement skills

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  • Created by: Emma
  • Created on: 13-04-13 14:14

Schema

Schema: a store of information and experience made up of recall and recognition schema

functions of recall schema:

  • to start or ignitiate the movement

functions of recognition schema:

  • the control the movement 
  • to evaluate the effectiveness of the movement to adapt schema for future

initial conditions: where the performer is in relation to self and others and whether thhey have been in a similar position before (recall schema)

response specification: knowing what to do in order to be successful (recall schema)

sensory consequences: what the movement feels like kinaesthesis (recognition schema) 

response outcomes: was the result of the skill successful (recognition schema) 

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multi-store model of memory

short term sensory store 

  • selective attention occurs (process of picking out and focusing on relevent information)
  • limitless capacity 

short term memory

  • informaiton is interpreted 
  • limited capacity of only 5-9 pieces of information (can be increased by chunking) 

long term memory

  • holds information which has been well learnt 
  • limitless capacity
  • motor programmes are stored here as a result of practice 
  • (RUM PIE) strategies to inmprove retention and retrieval)
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observational learning

Attention: learner concentrates on a specificate part of the demonstration (highlight key areas/ significant other, role model) 

Retention: leaner needs to remember the demonstration (repetition)

Motor reproduction: performer must be able to match or physically do the movement (physical and mental ability to do the skill)

Motivation: perfomer must want/ have the drive to do the skill (use praise to encourage) 

Copying of the skill more likely if:

  • behaviour seen as relevant 
  • identify with the model (same age,sex,ability/ make enjoyable or unique)

Link to BAHL.... 

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connectionist theory

Strengthening S-R bond: whole process aimed to strengthen the S-R bond

Role Models: setting examples that others can follow (parent or significant other) BAHL parents set examples by eating healthily 

Trial and Error: performer attempts the practice with correct and incorrect movements shown (sometimes successful response of smash occurs other times shuttle hits the net) BAHL try different sports clubs until find one you like)

Shaped: shaping behaviour is the process of changing behaviour to the correct one (gradually getting the right technique to perform the smash) BAHL shaped behaviour as regularly participating in sport

Positive reinforcement: correct response occurs praise should be given (praise correct technique for a smash) BAHL parental praise for healthy eating 

Changing the environment: involves manipulating the environment to make the correct stimulus more likely to occur (coach providing lots of high shots to increase the chance of performing a smash BAHL removing fizzy drinks and sweets machines 

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cognitive learning

whole learning: skill isnt broken down but kept as a whole problem BAHL understanding that its a combination of healthy eating and an active lifestyle which is required inorder to have a balanced active healthy lifestyle

insight learning: understanding why an action needs to occur BAHL understanding the benefits of regular exercise

previous experience: using memory/ past experiences in order to solve a problem BAHL seeing a family membver lose the weight and wanting to do the same

perception: important that the leaner knows what is required in order to be successful BAHL understanding that its important to exercise regularly 

interventing variables: using mental rehearsal or reminisence BAHL learer sees themsselves with their perfect body shape  

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Thorndike's Laws

Law of exercise:

  • repeating a skill through practice will strengthen the S-R bond 
  • Lack of repetition or incorrect practice will weaken the S-R bond 

Law of effect:

  • if the response is followed by a satisfier (praise) the bond is strengthened and increases the chance of behaviour occuring again
  • if the response is followed by an annoyer (negative feedback) then the bond is weakened

Law of readiness:

  • states that the learner must be at an appropriate state of physical and mental maturity to strengthen the S-R bond 
  • too youing or immature this can weaken the S-R bond and hinder learning
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transfer

this is the influence that one skill has on the learning and performance of another 

positive transfer: when one skill helps or enhances the learning and performance of another skill (throwing transfers to the a tennis serve) 

negative transfer: when one skill hinders or impedes the learning and performance of another skill (basketball player dribbling the ball once playing netball) 

proactive transfer: learning of a new skill affects the learning or performance of a future skill (learning a drop shot in badminton (lose wrist) learning drop shot tennis (firm wrist) 

retroactive transfer: learning a new skill affects the performance of previously learnt skills (learning a flick in hockey could have a negative effect on push pass (no lift needed) 

bilateral transfer: transfer of learning from one limb to the other (dominant righht footed football player passing learning to pass the ball with their left foot) 

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reaction time

useful?

  • gives you more time to produce your response
  • gives you more time to make a decision 
  • gives you an advantage over your opponent

reaction time: time from the onset of the stimulus to the start of the response 

movement time: time from the start of the response to the end movement

response time: time from the onset of the stimulus to the end of the movement 

simple reaction time: one stimulus and one possible response

choice reaction time: when theres more than one stimulus and therefore more than one possible response 

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theories for reaction time

Hicks law states that choice reaction time increases linearly as the number of choices/ stimuli increases 

  • attacker: try to disguise to increase the number of possible alternatives for their opponent thus increasing their reaction time.
  • defender: try to pick up the cues as to our opponents intended response to reduce the number of alternatives and therefore reduce your reaction time

anticipation:

  • spatial: predicting WHAT will happen  
  • temporal: predicting WHEN it will happen 

effect on performance:

  • if correct judgement made then it can reduce the response time
  • if incorrect judgement made it can increase response time 
  • correct anticipation allows more time to produce the movement 
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psychological refractory period and single channel

this is the negative side of anticipation:

  • if we detect or anticipate a stimulus and are processing that information, even if we then realise this is the incorrect response we cannot process a second stimulus until the first stimulus has been processed 
  • this makes our reaction time slower 
  • the delay is known as the psychological refractory period 
  • one piece of information can only be processed at a time 
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psychological refractory period and single channel

this is the negative side of anticipation:

  • if we detect or anticipate a stimulus and are processing that information, even if we then realise this is the incorrect response we cannot process a second stimulus until the first stimulus has been processed 
  • this makes our reaction time slower 
  • the delay is known as the psychological refractory period 
  • one piece of information can only be processed at a time 
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