Acids and Bases

Acids and Alkalis

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Intro

With concentrated acids/bases like hydrocloric acid (the acid found in your stomach) or sodium hydroxide (Caustic soda) it's a good idea to keep it away from your skin and metal. This is because at high pH's they are CORROSIVE. It will burn you if it gets in contact with your skin. 

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Acids

Acids are anything under 7 on the pH scale. Harmless ones are vinegar, fizzy drinks and citric fruits. Ones that can burn are hydrocloric acid. 

All acids contain hydrogen. That is why in their chemical formulae it has a H.

H stands for Hydrogen.

Hydrocloric acid is an acis found in your stomach.

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Bases and Alkalis

Anything over 7 on the pH scale are BASES. Most cleaning products are bases like bleach. Potentialy harmful ones are caustic soda. Bases react with acids to neutralize them. A base disolved in water is called an alkalis. Diluted alkalis are useful as cleaning products as oily, fatty grime is mildly acidic.

Bases

Metal Carbonate + acid=     water+salt

Metal Bicarbonate + acid =  Water+salt

Metal Oxide + acid =           water + salt + carbon dioxide

Metal Hyrdoxide+ acid =      water+ salt + carbon dioxide

Pure Metal + acid =             hydrogen+ salt

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Neutral and neutralization

Anything with the pH of 7 is NEUTRAL. These will do no harm to you. Water is an example of a neutral. To create a neutral an acid has to be mixed with the same strength alkalis. If Hydrochloric acid (pH 0) was mixed with Sodium Hydroxide (pH 14) then it would make a neutral.

Metal Carbonate + acid=     water+salt

Metal Bicarbonate + acid =  Water+salt

Metal Oxide + acid =           water + salt + carbon dioxide

Metal Hyrdoxide+ acid =      water+ salt + carbon dioxide

Pure Metal + acid =             hydrogen+ salt

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Acid, Alkalis and Neutral litmus paper experiment.

  • Get a can of coke, some soapy water and a glass of tap water.
  • Get some strips of litmus paper in both red and blue
  • Dip a red one and a blue one in each
  • If its an acid the red one will stay red and the blue one would turn red.
  • If it's an alkalis the red one would turn blue and the blue one would stay blue.
  • If it is a neutral then neither one of them would change colour.
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Acids, Alkalis and Neutrals Universal Indicator ex

  • Get the can of coke, the soapy water and a glass of tap water.
  • Dip a strip of universal indicator in the soloutions.
  • In the acid it would turn into a red/yellow/orange colour depending on the strength of the acid
  • In the neutral it would turn green.
  • In the alkalis it would turn into a dark green/blue/purple colour depending on the strength.

(http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/sci_dia_39.gif)

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