Acids and Alkalis and Reactions of Acids

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Acids and Alkalis

The PH Scale:

  • Goes from 0 to 14
  • 0 is strongly acidic, 14 is strongly alkaline and 7 is neutral
  • Examples of acidic substances are... Vinegar, lemon juice and stomach acid.
  • Examples of alkaline substances are... Washing up liquid, bleach and drain cleaner.
  • Acids can become neutral by adding alkalis and vice versa.

The Neutralisation Equation:

  • acid + alkali -> salt + water
  • H+(aq) + OH-(aq) -> H2O(l)

Indicators:

  • Universal indicator -> Red for an acid, purple for an alkali, green for neutral.
  • Litmus paper -> Red for an acid, blue for an alkali, purple for neutral.
  • Phenolphthalein -> Colourless for an acid, pink for an alkali.
  • Methyl orange -> Red for an acid, yellow for an alkali.
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Reactions of Acids

Acids Reacting With Metal Oxides:

  • acid + metal oxide -> salt + water
  • Metal oxides are usually bases so they react with acids.
  • E.g. hydrochloric acid + copper oxide -> copper chloride + water
  • 2HCl + CuO -> CuCl3 + H2O
  • E.g. sulphuric acid + zinc oxide -> zinc sulphate + water
  • H2SO4 + ZnO -> ZnSO4 + H2O

Acids Reacting With Metal Carbonates:

  • acid + metal carbonate -> salt + water + carbon dioxide
  • E.g. hydrochloric acid + sodium carbonate -> sodium chloride + water + carbon dioxide
  • 2HCl + Na2CO3 -> 2NaCl + H2O + CO2
  • E.g. sulphuric acid + calcium carbonate -> calcium sulphate + water + carbon dioxide
  • H2SO4 + CaCO3 -> CaSO4 + H2O + CO2
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