Acids & Bases

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Acids

Acids have a Ph of less than 7.

The most acidic is a Ph of 0

Acidic solutions turn BLUE LITMUS paper RED

Turn UNIVERSAL INDICATOR PAPER RED if STRONGLY acidic and turn ORANGE/YELLOW if WEAK.

Strong acids:

Hydrochloric, sulphuric and nitric acid.

an acid is a substance which dissolves in water to produce HYDROGEN IONS

HCL (g) ---- H+ (aq) + Cl (aq)

WEAK acids: LOW concentration of hydrogen ions

STRONG acids: HIGH concentration of hydrogen ions

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Bases

Any substance that will react with an acid to create a NEW substance forms salt and water. This is a NEUTRALISATION REACTION.

ACID + BASE - SALT + WATER

Ph of MORE THAN 7 and the most alkaline (base dissolved in water) is 14

salts are made when an ACID reacts with a BASE

Usually metal oxides/hydroxides

Base Examples:

Copper oxide and Sodium hydroxide

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Alkali

A base which is soluble

Produce solutions containing HIGH concentrations of HYDROXIDE ions (OH-) when added to water. (Stronger produce higher concentrations)

Examples of Alkalis:

Sodium hydroxide - NaOH

Potassium hydroxide - KOH

Calcium Hydroxide - Ca(OH)2

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Neutralisation Reactions

When reaction occurs between an acid and alkali, HYDROGEN ions (H+) combine with HYDROXIDE ions (OH-) to produce water (neutral Ph 7) (H2O)

Equation:

H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) --- H2O (l)

How to name salts in two simple steps:

Find metal that it contains

look for acid which it is made up of.

Reactions:

metal + acid --- Metal salt + hydrogen

Base + acid --- metal salt + water

Alkali + Acid --- Metal salt + water

Metal carbonate + acid ---- metal salt + water + carbon dioxide

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