Acids have a Ph of less than 7.
The most acidic is a Ph of 0
Acidic solutions turn BLUE LITMUS paper RED
Turn UNIVERSAL INDICATOR PAPER RED if STRONGLY acidic and turn ORANGE/YELLOW if WEAK.
Hydrochloric, sulphuric and nitric acid.
an acid is a substance which dissolves in water to produce HYDROGEN IONS
HCL (g) ---- H+ (aq) + Cl (aq)
WEAK acids: LOW concentration of hydrogen ions
STRONG acids: HIGH concentration of hydrogen ions
Any substance that will react with an acid to create a NEW substance forms salt and water. This is a NEUTRALISATION REACTION.
ACID + BASE - SALT + WATER
Ph of MORE THAN 7 and the most alkaline (base dissolved in water) is 14
salts are made when an ACID reacts with a BASE
Usually metal oxides/hydroxides
Copper oxide and Sodium hydroxide
A base which is soluble
Produce solutions containing HIGH concentrations of HYDROXIDE ions (OH-) when added to water. (Stronger produce higher concentrations)
Examples of Alkalis:
Sodium hydroxide - NaOH
Potassium hydroxide - KOH
Calcium Hydroxide - Ca(OH)2
When reaction occurs between an acid and alkali, HYDROGEN ions (H+) combine with HYDROXIDE ions (OH-) to produce water (neutral Ph 7) (H2O)
H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) --- H2O (l)
How to name salts in two simple steps:
Find metal that it contains
look for acid which it is made up of.
metal + acid --- Metal salt + hydrogen
Base + acid --- metal salt + water
Alkali + Acid --- Metal salt + water
Metal carbonate + acid ---- metal salt + water + carbon dioxide