Acids and Alkalis

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  • Created by: AntNimNim
  • Created on: 08-11-15 20:31

Acids

1. They are solutions of compounds in water. Acids are liquids

2. If concentrated they can be corrosive.

3. Turn blue litmus paper red - this is an easy test for an acid!

4. Usually react with metals to form salts. Acids are sour!

5. Acids release hydrogen ions, H+ in solution.

6. Turn Universal Indicator from green to red, and have a pH less than 7.

Examples of acids: are vinegar (ethanoic acid) and lemon juice (citric acid)

magnesium + hydrochloric acid -> magnesium chloride + hydrogen gas

1. Hydrochloric acid, HCl(aq)

2. Nitric acid, HNO3(aq)

3. Sulphuric acid, H2SO4(aq)

4. Phosphoric Acid, H3PO4

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Alkalis

1. They feel soapy to touch.

2. They are soluble bases.

3. Like acids, they can burn the skin.

4. They turn red litmus blue - this is how you test for an alkali!

5. Alkalis contain hydroxide ions (OH-).

6. They taste bitter.

7. Turns Universal Indicator from green to blue or purple.

Some common alkalis used in your laboratories at school will be:

1. Sodium hydroxide, NaOH(aq)

2. Ammonia, NH3NH4OH(aq)

3. Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2(aq)

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Neutral Substances

1. Litmus paper is not affected by neutral paper.

2. Tend to be harmless

3. Universal Indicator stays green.

Common examples of neutral substances:

1. Water

2. Sodium chloride solution, NaCl(aq)(common salt)

3. Sugar solution C6H12O6(aq)

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Equations

Acid + Alkali -> Salt +Water

Acid + Metal-> Salt +Hydrogen

Acid + Carbonate-> Salt +Water +Carbon Dioxide

Acid + Metal Oxide-> Salt +Water

Acid + Hydroxide-> Salt +Water

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