Acid Rain and Global Warming - Chemistry Y10

  • Created by: shiul1
  • Created on: 22-02-19 01:00

Carbon Monoxide (CO)

- Colourless, odourless, tasteless gas.

- Produced when fuel is burned in a limited amount of air.

- It binds strongly with the haemoglobins in the red blood cells, so the blood carries less oxygen than it should. 

- It does not cause climate change directly, but its presence changes the abundance of greenhouse gases, such as methane. 

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Sulfur Dioxide

- A sharp, choking smell.

- Naturally found in fossil fuels, and is released when the fuels are burned. 

- It becomes more acidic when dissolved in water droplets in clouds, making acid rain. 

Detecting Sulfur Dioxide Pollution:

- Lichens (a biological indicator), which grows in exposed areas, so they'll easily absorb water and nutrients. Air pollutants dissolved in rainwater (like sulfur dioxide) damages them. This tells us about the pollution in some areas:

       - bushy lichens mean really clean air.

       - leafy lichens mean a small amount of pollution in the area.

        - crusty lichens mean more pollution in the area.

       - no lichens mean the air is heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide. 

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Acid Rain

- Damages the waxy layer on trees, making it more difficult for healthy growth (restricts absorption of minerals)

- Makes lakes and rivers too acidic for some aquatic life to survive.

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Greenhouse Gases

- Absorb heat energy, preventing it from escaping into space. The Earth warms up as a result.

How The Greenhouse Effect Works:

1. Sunlight enters the Earth's atmosphere.

2. The ground is warmed up and the Earth's surface emits heat.

3. Some heat is absorbed by greenhouse gases, and is re-emitted and does not escape. Some heat escapes into space

4. The Earth's atmosphere warms up. 

Most important greenhouse gases:

- water vapour (H2O)      - carbon dioxide (CO2)      - methane (CH4)      - nitrous oxide (N2O)

- CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons)

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Humans Contributing to Greenhouse Gases

- Rotting rubbish in landfill sites; emits methane

- Farming; production of methane and nitrous oxide. (rice paddies and cattle produces methane) (Animal waste and fertilisers (for crops) releases nitrous oxide)

- Fossil fuels release CO2 when burned

- Deforestation causes fewer trees to remove the CO2 from the atmosphere (for photosynthesis). 

- Fallen/rotting trees add more CO2 into the atmosphere. 

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- Carbon dioxide emissions have increased the amount of gases in the atmosphere, therefore, the average global temperature rose as well. 

- Before the start of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, the average CO2 concentration was 0.028%. Nowadays, the concentration had reached 0.04%.

- The average global temperature had changed, creating a trend for it to rise. 

- The increase in average global temperatures and the percentage of CO2 in the atmosphere, as well as being supported by other data, have created the consensus that the two are linked. 

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Global Warming

The impact of rising temperatures of the Earth:

- Changes in the global weather pattern.

- Melting of polar ice caps; increasing sea levels, which will increase coastal erosion and flooding of low-lying land. 

- Causing droughts and flooding in different areas. 

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What Can be Done About it

Recycling of:

- Glass; can be melted and remoulded, using less energy than creating new glass from raw materials. 

- Metal; melting and remoulding which takes less energy than extracting them from their ores. Aluminium is particularly useful for recycling. 

- Paper; easily recycled and uses less energy than making paper from trees. 

- Plastic; uses crude oil (a non-renewable resource), so recycling helps conserve it. Also, stops it going to landfills or causing litter. 

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