ST THOMAS AQUINAS
What Aquinas would have to say about ABORTION:
The embryo has as much right as the mother. Catholics believe life starts from conception.
Abortion goes against the 6th Commandment - Thou shalt not kill.
Abortion goes against the primary precepts - Presevation of life and Reproduction. Although not considered a contraceptive device it can be seen as one - just as the pill is to a catholic believer - abortion.
It also goes against the precept Order in Society - the more people having abortions the more abortions will be made and will not keep order.
God decides when it is time to die.
Real and Apparent goods - the real good is to allow life to take place the apparent is to kill it in order for it to be convineint for the woman.
AQUINAS IS AGAINST ABORTION.
What A UTILITARIAN would have to say about ABORTION:
Benthem (act)- Hedonic Calculus, whats the certainty it will cause pleasure? How long will it be for? But you must measure for EVERYONE involved. Including embryo.
Principle of Utility: Greatest good for greatest number - Minoritys ignored - Man and Woman want abortion - they would not consider the baby as it is not the greatest number however PETER SINGER WOULD (preference utilitarian)
Consider the pain and pleasure the baby would cause - how much pain and how much pleasure?
Higher and Lower Pleasures (mill) - Higher is considered more important. If it mentally affects you then abort it! The baby is a lower pleasure as a lower pleasure has caused it into existence, so you must consider higher pleasures first! If it stops you from experiencing higher pleasures - ABORT!
John Stuart Mill (rule) - make a rule the whole of society can abide by - eg. abortion only up til 24 weeks?
DUTY FOR DUTY'S SAKE - you made the baby, it is your duty to mother it.
Humans are the higher beings because of reason, if the baby effects your reasoning you can get rid of it.
Categorical imperative - 1st - Universalisation of maxims. Can we universalise it? If we did, the population would decrease so no.
2nd - Treat people as an end in themselves. To kill the baby for our own good is not treating it as an end in itself but as a means to an end. So no.
3rd - Kingdom of ends. To do both of the above and apply it to the rest of society. As the previous two do not work, no.
if we abort the baby it cannot reach its potential of becoming a human with reason or reaching the summon bonum!
Apply the principles:
Old Testament - 10 commandments given to Moses THOU SHALL NOT KILL abortion goes against the commandments.
JESUS - great commandments love god (follow the 10 commandments) love thy neighbour, your baby is your neighbour so you must love it and not kill it.
ST PAUL - agape, unconditional love, you must show agape for the baby.
Sanctity of life - life is sacred therefore do not abort.
Joseph Fletcher - situation ethics, do the most loving thing. The most loving thing would be to not abort the baby unless it had disabilities that could affect it's life. Then you must question what would the most loving thing be?