- Created by: oliviafussell
- Created on: 14-01-20 16:51
What are the areas of development?
Language and hearing
What is classes as abnormal development?
If a baby has delayed development in all four areas then they have global development delay. It is only called this for children aged 5 or under. If they are over 5 they have a learning disability
What is normal development?
The normal development trajectory is that over time you gain more skills.
A huge worry is if you are not gaining more skills or if you learn a skill and then go backwards and no longer have the skill.
If a child regresses than is it a neuro-developmental emergency
What is a mild/moderate learning difficulty?
quite common and affect 1/100 children
defined by measuring IQ
Very few children are measured or measured by a psychologist.
What is a severe learning difficulty?
1 in 1000
IQ below 35
Often co-morbid. E.g if a child can only babble this is normal for a 1 year old but not of a 3 year old.
Complex health, social and educational needs
What is cerebral palsy?
Caused by a single injury to the brain.
Commenst cause - happens in the womb and baby is born with it. It is often undetected until 9 months-3.
May happen during birth also but this is less common.
May also happen if the child has a head injury when they are young.
Problems with moving and posture
Prenatal vs Perinatal vs Postnatal causes
Has a really broad phenotype
Developmental delay but not always
VERY WIDE SPECTRUM DEPENDING HOW MUCH OF TEHE BRAIN WAS INJURED AND WHERE IT WAS INJURED
What is abnormal language development?
When both Expressive and receptive language are affected
language delay = not reaching milestones when supposed too
what is autism?
1/100 - common
Triad of functional impairments affecting:
-socialisation , communication and repetitive behaviour
Pervasive - the chid will have these three types of behaviours in every setting , all of the time
3M:1F= More common for males .
Spectrum - At one end you may have a child who is non verbal and cannot communicate via words , gesture or eye contact . At the other end you have a child with aspergers who has normal language development but who cannot read a social situation.
Picture exchange cards - child may hand a picture of banana to nursery worker to show they want a bannana.
Have to look at what is going on with the child though e.g has he witnessed domestic violence or is it because he is autistic?
What is a hearing impairment?
Sensorineural Impairment e.g connection between ear and brain - rare
Conductive impairment e.g ear stopping sound getting through to the brain- common
Can present in delayed speech
Newborns are always screened for hearing loss but not all children are picked up
Children with conductive hearing loss will have such bad hearing it will affect their development
What is a visual impairment?
Common - 10% of children have refractive errors
More common with other disabilities e.g autism, hearing impairment and cerebral palsy
Blind baby = developmental emergency. - Identifed by baby not reacting to visual stimulations or not following adult around the room with their eyes.
Causes - eye or brain
Visual impairment affects all domains. If you cannot see it will affect your gross motor - tripping up. Harder to socialise. Delayed crawling and walking. Effecrs fine motor skills e.g jigsaw puzzle. Effects language development as adult cannot ppint to a tree and say tree.
QTVI will come in to schools and advice teachers how to teach adequately
What are specific learning difficulties?
presents with school problems
diagnosis is made by educational psyhcologist
What is ADHD?
Children under 5 rarely diagnosed as all kids are hyperactive/attention seeking.
Triad - Impulsivity, Reduced attention span, Hyperactivity
Born with it but persists into school and affects your learning/socialisation
Medical genetic disorder
Often confused with poor parenting but can come hand in hand e.g adhd parent=poor parenting and genetics passed on- runs in families
Sometimes abnormally active in the womb
Often parent may be undiagnosed
What is down-syndrome?
Delay in learning to sit, walk etc.
Learning difficulties associated
Get a variety of other medical problems e.g heart problems. But also almost guaranteed to have hearing problems and visual problems. May also struggle with language which may or may not be associated with hearing and visual problems.
Often a global delay
Vast majoirty of children will be able to walk despite floppy muscles.
How can prematurity cause abnormal development?
Brain problems e.g may develop cerebral palsy.
Might have no problems at all.
Might have behavioural problems such as inactivity and hyperactivity.
Probably will need support with breathing. If baby needs support with breathing for a large period of time , the baby may develop problems with their lungs.
Normal pregnancy lasts up to 42 weeks. Babies can survive from 22 weeks with extreme support but they will have a number of problems and perhaps a poor quality life too.
How can neglect and abuse affect development?
Affects development adversely
Neglect may mean that the baby cannot interact or communicate. If an adult isnt talking to you or engaging in conversation then you are not going to pick up language.
Neglected children may not grow properly/growth is often limited.
Children will feel enormous amounts of anxiety if they witness traumatic experiences such as domestic violence.
Terrible untreated nits can cause anameia. Anaemic children find learning and activity difficult because they experience exhaustion.
How can you work with children who need support?
Picture a circle with the child and their family in the middle . Surrounding them is acute health services, schools, the local community, social services, voluntary sector, specialist health services, GP, Community health.
Family has to work with a variety of teams to promote development.
E.g specialist health servicees - down syndrome may mean child has hole in her heart.
Volunatry sector - give parents a break every now and then by providing services for child.