Abiotic Factors

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Measured by a thermometer/thermal probe

Temperature affects enzymes and therefore metabolism. Metabolic systems only work efficiently within relatively narrow temperature ranges. In extreme cases enzymes may denature.

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Humidity is measured by a hygrometer.

It affects the rate of evaporation; the higher the humidity, the lower the rate of evaporation. The level of humidity determines the speed of evaporation and so controls the effectiveness of transpiration in plants and thermoregulation in animals.

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Light Intensity

Light intensity is measured by a light meter/sensor

Light is often the limiting factor of photosynthesis which affects the productivity of the whole ecosystem

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pH is measured by a pH meter or chemical indicator test

It affects enzymes and metabolism can be disrupted if the conditions are too acidic or alkaline

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Oxygen Concentration in Water

Is measured by an oxygen-sensitive electrode or chemical test

Oxygen is essential for aerobic respiration. Oxygen solubility in water is low and varies with tempearture; the lower the temperature, the more oxygen that will dissolve

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Carbon Dioxide Concentration

Is measured by gas analysis

Carbon Dioxide is essential for photosynthesis and can be a limiting factor

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Wind Speed

Is measured by an anemometer

It affects rate of evaporation and cooling, so has an impact on transpiration in plants and thermoregulation in animals

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