Water Consumption in HICs - Agricultural
Normally HICs can afford water, therefore they take in for GRANTED! The UN recommends 50L of water consumption daily, though the average American consumes up to 500L.
AGRICULTURE . To water crops, they have machines that can produce 75L of water per second
--> 91% of its Agriculture water consumption is used on irrigation
--> 9% on piggery and stock drinking
Flood Irrigation: Most commonly used though it gives an uneven distribution
Overhead Irrigation: More sufficient although during dry conditions water will evaporate before reaching the plants
Drip Irrigation Least used although it is most efficient but it delivers water straight to plant roots
Water Consumption in HICs - Domestic
These are non efficient facilities that can easily become efficient:
NON - EFFICIENT
- Bath: 120L
- Leaving the tap on: 10L per minute
- Normal flush: 11L
- No water meter - you're not aware of the amount of usage
- Showers: 60L
- Turning the tap off
- Small flush: 3L
- Water meter - you're aware and can control
Water Consumption in HICs - Industrial
HICs have big companies which consume a lot of water.
There are ways to reduce water such as:
- Eco Design - using TECHNOLOGY instead of FOSSIL FUELS
- Ripple Effect (saves 30% of bill) - a free government website that outlines how companies can be more water efficient; giving advice on ways to reduce water consumption
- --> WALKERS CRISPS have taken part of this scheme and have reduced 50% of their water bills
They could also do the following..
- Use push taps for their showers (saves up to 15% water)
- Turn off taps
- Use a water meter - you are aware of the amount
- Use low flush (3L instead of 11L)
North America uses 1/3 of the world's agricultural water consumption!
Water Consumption in LICs
They do not have the money for machines such as sprinklers in HICs etc.
- To water crops they can produce only 2L per second by hand
- They don't have piped water, therefore children and women have to walk a kilometres to carry as much as 20L of water by hand!
LICs such as Africa, on average consume 30L of water only (compared to America up to 600L)
LICs tend to have more agriculture water consumption than domestic and industrial since they farm for a living, while buisnesses are usually family run thus small and won't consume much water. Domestically, they tend to save as much as possible as use it wisely since its a far distance to collect water - plus that can take a bath and wash in rivers etc.
Water Management Problems in HICs
HICs don't have a problem acessing water since they have the technology
- In the UK they still have the old victorian pipes that have been there for the last 100 years. --> They are leaking --> But it is not contaminating the water. 3.5 billion litres of water lost daily (more than 1/5 of the 15 billion water supply everyday!). They don't repair this since it will cost up to 3 million pounds.
- Water leaks then freezes in the winter, this continues and created more cracks
Rainfall and Populational Imbalance
The population and the rainfall of the UK is unevenly distributed. 1/3 of the UK’s population live in south-east England but this is also the driest part of the UK with average annual rainfall of less than 800 mm. The least populated areas of the UK are in the mountain areas of Scotland,Wales and north-west England, but it is here that the most rain falls: over 2,000 mm.
Water Management Problems in HICs
Seasonal Rain Imbalance --> Spanish Costas
-->They get most of the percipitation during the winter months
-->They get very little in the summer months
-->...Its in the summer when they need the most water
-->November-April: 385mm of rainfall
-->May-October: 70mm of rainfall
Why do they need so much in the summer?
>TOURISTS! --> Theres a demand for water consuming luxeries such as Pool and Golf Courses
>CROP & IRRIGATION DEMAND --> Because of the sudden rise in people, farmers need more water for their crops to provide food for the tourists
>HOTTER SUMMERS --> Summers have become 2c hotter than usual therefore this means more evaporation and less water
Farmers need water to irrigate their crops since majority of the water is distrubuted to resorts - they are desperatly fighting for water rights. The government chooses between resorts and farmers --> obviously resorts! More MONEY!
Water Management Problems in LICs
HICs main problem is that they don't access to clean water thus a huge health problem.
- 1/6 of the world's population don't have acess to clean water
- 5000 deaths a day due to water borne diseases (Typhoid, Cholera)
- Resource Exploitation:
--> they are mining for diamonds as living --> Mercury is released (80% liquid form, 20% solid form) --> if digested, this can make you aggressive as it attacks the nervous system --> can lead to diseases like leukemia.
Rivers and streams are polluted ( They drink from this ) --> Rubbish is thrown in the atmosphere and snow piles over it --> once the snow melts is flows down to streams and rivers --> DIARRHOEA!
Diarrhoea gets you dehydrated but you can't drink the water since its polluted.
LICs main cause of death is DIARRHOEA!
Water Surplus and Deficit
Water Surplus: When an area has a lot of water
Water Deficit: When an area has a lack of water
Being an HIC doesn't mean you always have a surplus, it just means you have better access to it.
Factors that could affect:
--> Seasonality: which seasons percipitation comes (Spanish Costas for example)
-->Reliability: When predicting rainfall will come (farmers must predict well for their crops)
-->Topography: The shape of land (high lands collect more water eg steep valley)
-->Evapotranspiration rate: When the temperature is high, makes the rain evaporate fast
--> Lattitude: Distance from the equator
-->Population Density: The higher population - more demand of water . (eg India is a densly populated area and have a deficit) (another example the UK - 1/3 of the UK’s population live in SE England - this is the driest part! NW England has least population but most rainfall!)