A New World

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Satellite States

Each country had one communist government 

The had so much control because:

1. The USSR had a large army

2. They were grateful for the USSR liberating them from the Nazis

3. It was a gradual change

The Countries

  • Bulgaria
  • Albania
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Hungary
  • Romania
  • Poland
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The Hungarian Uprising 1956

Leader until 1956 = Rakosi :

Censored propaganda, media, art, music, theatre

No freedom

Secret police - tortured and terrorism

Russian education

Hungarians paid for troops they didn't want

Signs in Russian - Patriotic

Low standard of living - food shortages

Products sent to USSR

Rigged elections : 20% voted for communism in 1945

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The Hungarian Uprising 1956 2

Lazlo Rajk : 

Foreign secretary

Rakosi's main rival

Found guilty of plotting to kill Rakosi


Cardinal Joseph Mindszenty :

Spoke out against Nazis + facists

Opposed communism

Guilty of treason 

Life imprisonment

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The Hungarian Uprising 1956 3

Stalin's death - 1953

Rakosi's government unpopular --> replaced with Nagy

Nagy :

Freedom of press

Encouraged open political discussions

Economic reform

Free elections

Almost left Warsaw Pact

Rakosi led a hate campaign and blamed Nagy for economic problems

Rakosi replaced Nagy in 1955

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The Hungarian Uprising 1956 4

Khruschev's Speech : 

Denounces Stalin's policies

Rajk's execution = misscarriage of justice

Replaced Rakosi with Gero

Nagy reinstated

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Soviet Response

22nd October 1956 - 

Students protest for Nagy back

24th October 1956 - 

Nagy = Prime Minister

25th October 1956 - 

Soviets opened fire on protestors

28th October 1956 -

Khruschev agrees to withdraw tanks

4th November 1956 -

Leave Warsaw Pact --> 1,000 soviet tanks roll in

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Soviet Response 2

Acting under China's advice

Could lose other states

West unlikley to be involved because of Suez crisis

Visit from Tito - Yugoslavia

Kadar appointed leader

Nagy + associates killed

Nagy killed June 1958

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Prague Spring 1968

Dubcek- liberal communist, wanted socialism

Brezhnev Doctrine- no Eastern European country could reject communism


·         Novotny:

o   Unpopular

o   No control

o   Bad handling of student protests

o   Bad economy

o   Censorship

Prague Spring - time between Dubcek's rise and USSR's response

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Prague Spring 1968 events


·         20th August 1968- troops invade Czechoslovakia and take Dubcek into Soviet Custody

o   He tells them not to resist

o   People stand in front of tanks

o   People put flowers in soldiers hair

·         27th August 1968- Dubcek returns to government

o   His enemy Husak is in power

o   All of his work is undone

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Dubcek's Reforms


·         No press censorship

·         Curbs power of secret police

·         More trade with West

·         Competition encouraged

·         Free election

·         Can travel abroad

·         Basic human rights

·         Higher standard of living

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Similarities and Differences

Similarities : 


Student protests

Bad economy

Soviet control

No religion

Low standards of living

Thought West would help

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Similarities and Differences 2

Similarities :

Key Personalities-

Loyal and unpopular

Liberal communists

Hardline communists chosen by USSR


USSR alarmed

Leaders against censorship

Soviet Response-

West didn’t help

Tanks sent in

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Similarities and Differences 3

Differences (Hungary)

Started with riots

Left Warsaw Pact

Wanted a democracy

5 days

Catholic Church led riots

4,000 died

Nagy hanged

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The Berlin Wall 1961 - 1989


·         Germany divided into b sections – controlled by West since 1949 Airlift

·         West Germany better off

·         Many skilled workers East -->West

·         USSR thought USA were spying on them in Berlin


·         13th August 1961-Khrushchev built wall- barbed wire

·         16th August 1961- replaced by concrete blocks

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The Berlin Wall 1961 - 1989 2


At first USSR thought it looked good

200 people died crossing

West called it the “Wall of Shame”

Showed how desperate the East were

9th November 1989 - the wall fell

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Lech Walesa- leader of trade union 

Solidarity led Gdansk Shipyard Strike- in response to long-term concerns about low wages and food shortages

Gdansk Agreement 31st August 1980 to organise their own independence and the right to strike

Short term, it wasn’t that effective

1981 General Jaruzelski comes into power

 1981 Martial law is implemented(military run the country)

Walesa and 100,000+ others imprisoned as Solidarity is declared illegal

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Solidarity 2

July 1983- lifted but restrictions for several years

Reduced civil liberties and economic activity

Solidarity still grew long term

Gorbachevs growing power helped Solidarity

1986Gorbachev said he wouldn’t interfere in domestic policies of other Eastern European countries

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Collapse of Soviet Empire

Soviet Empire = USSR + East Europe

Gorbachev’s Realisation- USSR couldn’t afford an arms race and the Cold War was damaging the economy

Foreign Policy

·          1987-Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty – meant Cold War was over

·         1988 Brezhnev Doctrine ends – USSR couldn’t use force against Satellite Statesàthey overthrew their governments

·         1989 Soviet troops withdrawn from Afghanistan – showed USSR to be weak and couldn’t interfere with other countries’ affairs

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Collapse of Soviet Empire 2

Domestic Reforms

·         Glasnost- transparency in governmentà more openness and democracy

o   caused party to lose censorship and secrets revealed

·         Perestroika- restructuring the economyà loss of economic control

o   Freedom caused wide spread demands for more change

o   Many governments controlled by the USSR broke down

o   Gorbachev- unpopular

o   Division in USSR

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Collapse of Soviet Empire 3

Other Reasons

·         Afghanistan- USSR supported communist government there Afghanistanà angered

o   Mujahedeen fighters +10,000 Soviet soldiers dead- worse without Gorbachev

·         Arms Race – anti-communist Reagan came into USA power

o   Spent more money against USSR

o   USSR couldn’t compete

o   Gorbachev reformed economy

·         People in East Europe were poor, food shortages, crime , alcoholism+ drug abuse - Gorbachev couldn’t stop this

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Similarities and Differences 4

Differences(Prague Spring)

Passive Resistance

Wanted Liberal communism

4 months

Uprising planned

Socialist action plan

47 arrested

Dubcek arrested

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