A2 Travel & Tourism - Objectives

These cards will state the key objectives of tourism development based on:

Economic objectives

  • Creating employment - this can be either direct or indirect employment and it can benefit both employees of global/international companies and members of the host population. Direct employment is when the jobs are involved directly such as working in hotels, restaurants or entertainment complexes. Indirect work is more associated with roles such as monitering maintainance around the complexes, for example, poolside and toilet maintainance.
  • Increasing foreign currency payments to contribute to:
    (a) balance of payments - this means making sure that the amount British visitors spend overseas in foreign destinations is balanced out equally by the amount that is spent by overseas visitors to the UK
    (b) GDP a.k.a Gross Domestic Product - refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. This is usually based on an annual assessment and report and it is also used as an indication to measure the standard of living in a country.
  •  Multiplier effect - this is when the tourism industry provides jobs for the local community which means they can spend money within the area, this in effect will then continue to contribute to creating more employment and the pattern will continue
  • Development and regeneration - the development and regeneration of an area will work to increase tourist numbers and will also give the opportunity for new employment opportunities for the locals. One example of an area that has experienced this is the Portsmouth Dockyards which has now developed a shopping and entertainment complex which has become an increasingly popular attraction for both international and domestic tourists.

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Environmental objectives

  • Habitat preservation - this aims to make sure that the natural habitats for the local wildlife within an area is conserved and preserved in a sustainable way so that it is still available for future generations to experience. This is mainly achieved through voluntary groups that work to achieve these goals, for example, the National Trust work to preserve the land and coastlines of Britain. 
  • Regeneration & conservation of natural & man made environments - once again this objective is about protecting areas that are important to the environment so that they are sustainable for the future, however, in addition to habitat preservation, the English Heritage also works to conserve historic buildings as well as land.
  • Environmental education for locals & tourists - this can be achieved by producing both the locals and tourists with information via methods such as leaflets and booklets that can be made easily accessible through tourist information centers, etc. this will benefit the locals and the tourists as educating them will enable them to take actions such as using the facilities provided for littler which will work towards making the attractions sustainable for them
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Socio-cultural objectives

  • Promoting understanding between cultures of tourists and local population - this can be enhanced by providing and promoting events within a destination which will enable the tourists to learn about the local culture from the hosts as they will have original and genuine knowledge. One example in which this can be achieved is through members of the local community offering to share their accommodation with visitors. This will not only allow the tourists to learn information from the locals, but it will also enable them to have a more authentic experience.
  • Providing community facilities/tourist facilities - this can be achieved through income being deposited directly to the local governments which can then be used to improve amenities and facilities within the community which will not only benefit the tourists when they visit, but they will be equally accessible for the host population also.
  • Revival of traditional activities - this can once again be achieved by traditional and original cultural events being promoted and provided by the local governments. It may include hosting village fairs where locals can sell their produce and craft to tourists and in addition, as well as this allowing the locals to highlight their traditional activities, the money earned through these activities will directly benefit the local community.
  • Sense of pride/identity - by carrying out both the promotion and sharing of cultural knowledge, including revival of traditions and crafts, the destination concerned can begin to create or highlight their independent identity which will work to attract more tourists due to their unique offers
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Political objectives

  • Enhancing the image of an area - this is particularly important for LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries). These countries may be affected by factors such as crime and conflict that have been influence by current political debates. Violent actions and protests being carried out by locals as a result of political conflict will immediately put tourists off visiting that particular country. This will mean that the host population will not be able to earn adequate amounts of income that they normally do through tourism - this can be particularly problematic if a country is mostly dependent on the income tourism brings as there are limited other employment opportunities within the community
  • Creating regional/national identity - this is similar to creating a sense of pride in the local community which is a socio-cultural objective, however creating a positive regional/national identity based on politics is on a larger scale. It will allow other countries across the globe to acknowledge that the country is based on legal and political consensus rather than conflict.
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