Murdock & Golding [Pluralist] - Increase in digital technology has given consumers access to media from any culture. Audiences now choose what and when to access.
Curran & Seaton [Pluralist] Concentration of ownership is good as existing companies can provide audience with wider choice and affordable prices.
Bagdikian [Critique of Pluralism] Concentration of ownership puts forward conservative viewpoints, we have no real choice.
Marcuse [Marxist] - Mass media have 'dumbed down' the working class so that they have no real say on anything.
Milliband [Marxist] - The ruling class use the media to convince us the inequality of capitalism.
Gramsci [Marxist]- The domination of the media by the Elite has caused 'cultural hegemony' (dominance of ruling class ideas)
Concentration of ownership
Refers to the bigger media companies who own a diverse range of media.
Owning all stages in the production, distribution and consumption of a product (News Corporation -> Fox -> Sun)
Moving into new, unrelated areas of business.
Combining diverse media forms (iPhone)
Selling a product through various forms (Spider-Man sells through film, magazines, toys..)
controlling which issues come to public attention cybermedia the internet and worldwide web
global conglomeration - trend for media corporations to have a presence in many countries
hegemony - the domination of the ruling class view becoming the consensus,
public service broadcasting - media outlets controlled by the state
investigative journalism - aims to expose the misdeeds of the powerful.