A2 *CRIME AND DEVIANCE* GENDER AND CRIME* VERY DETAILED NOTES! PART 3

A2 AQA SOCIOLOGY CRIME AND DEVIANCE GENDER AND CRIME VERY DETAILED NOTES! PART 3

VERY COMPREHENSIVE/DETAILED/STRAIGHT FROM SPEC/INCLUDES EXPLAINED EXAMPLES

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Growing females criminality

ü  Growing females criminality

The pattern is slowly changing in the UK/EU countries.

How: 1957 men were responbible for 11 times more crime than women

2008: ratio of male:female crime is 4:1

Giurls (10-17) rose by 25% in England and wales (minor assaults/robberies/public offenses/criminal damamge) 

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Feminist Views on Why Some Women Turn to Crime

Feminist Views on Why Some Women Turn to Crime

Adler (1975) : Chaging culture  

Ader (1975)  argued that the female crime rate was rising and that ths increase was due to women's liberation. Adler argues that one other way women were copying men was in criminal activity. Women also now have more oppurtunty to commit crimes as they were in the public domian.

Evaluation of Adler

·         Is correct when she argues that womes behaviour has changed since the 60s

·         However most female criminals are working class but this is the group least affected by womens liberaton

·         If Adlers analysis were correct we would see an increase in crime by liberated middle-class women, but this hasn't happended

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Denscomb (2001) the rise of “ladette culture”

Denscomb (2001) the rise of “ladette culture”

·         Young women are adopting more of a mascuinine “ladette” culture since they adopt into behaviours tradtitonally associated with young mwen such as binge drinking/gang cultures/risk taking.

·         Police are porsecuting girls by taking their actions more seriously rather than dealing with it informally by other means like increasing stats for such offenses 

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Pat Carlen: conducted a survey

Pat Carlen: conducted a survey

Conducted research on 39 women ages 15-46 who had been onvicted of one or more crimes. ost of the women were working class and from the London area. Carler rejected Adler's arguments as these women had been largely untouchedby womens liberation. Carlen argues that working class women have traditionally been controlled by thge class deal and the gender deal, and that crime arises when these deals break down.

·         The class deal refers to working class women being controlled by the possibility of a reasonably paid job and the ability to buy consumer goods and enjoy and decent quality of life

·         The gender deal refers to working class women being contrlled by the possibility of decent relationships with men an having children

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The changing role or 'liberationist' perspective

The changing role or 'liberationist' perspective

·         Adler: increasing rates of female crime is linked to their freedom from traditional forms of social control and acceptance of 'masculine' roles. 

·         Denscombe: changing female roles over the last 10 years means they are as likely to take part in risk taking behaviour. He conducted an interview with 15-16 year olds using in-depth interviews and focus groups and noticed they were wanting to 'look hard' and 'be in control'.

·         Westwood: identities are constantly restructured and reframed. We need to understand how women are changing their identities in a more forceful way and link it to crime. 

·         Heidensohn disputes this however, saying convicted offenders score highly on tests of femininity. 

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Transgression: A postmodernist critique (feminist

Transgression: A postmodernist critique (feminist view)

·         Carlen: argued the previous explanations are theoretically weak.

·         Smart: transgressive criminology - criminology itself is tied to male concerns and questions so could never answer feminist questions. 

·         We should be asking 'what can criminology do for feminists?'

·         Feminists looked more closely at:
- the way women stayed in at night for fear of becoming victims.
- domestic violence.
- how women were treated by the law in issues of **** and harassment. 

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