A2 Respiration

  • Created by: Jamie
  • Created on: 15-10-12 19:51

Why do living Organisms need to Respire?

What is respiration the process of? what are the compex molecules that store energy? Where does it occur? What is energy? What is ATP?

What two ways does energy exist? Potential meaning? And kinetic meaning? What do moving molecules have? What does it allow them to do? what do large organic molecules contain? what cant happen to energy? What can it be? What is it measured in? what does it have many of? give examples? What do all living organism need energy for? What are all the reactions that take place within organisms known collectively as? What are anabolic metabolic reactions? What about catabolic? Name the metabolic process: C _ V_ T_ _ S_OR- what is it? How much of an organisms energy is used? What pumps do all cell membranes have? What do they maintain? What do they pump out? What do they pump in?  whats this against? S_ _ _ E _ _ O - what happens to large molecules made in some cells? E _ O _ Y _ _ _ I - what is this? S_N _ES_S- what is this? Such as? What are these examples of? Energy is needed for the replication of? and synthesis of? The movement of what? Activation of what? What happens to glucose in the beginning? Why? What form of energy is from catabolic reactions? Why is this useful? What do organisms need to maintain?

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Why do living Organisms need to Respire?

Whereby energy stored in complex organic molecules is used to make ATP, carbohydrates fats and protiens, living cells, the ability to do work, is phosphorylated nucleotide and is the universal energu currency,

as potential and kinetic, stored, the energy of movement, kinetic enegry, to diffuse down a concentration grdient, chemical potential energy, created or destoryed, converted from one form to another, joules or kiljoules, many forms such as sound (mechanical) light heat electricl chemical and atomic, drive their biological processes, metabolism, metabolic reactions that build large molcules, that break large molceules into smaller ones, active transport, movement of ions and molcules across a membrane against a concnetration gradiet, much of the ogranism energy, sodium-potasium pumps which maintain the resting potetial, sodium out of the cell against the gradient and potassium into the cell against the gradient, secretion, exported by exocytosis, endocytosis, bulk movement of large molecules into cells, synthesis, building of large molecules from smalle rones such as proteins from amino acids or steorids from cholestorol annd cellulose from beta glucose, anabolism, replication of DNA and syntehsis of organelles before a cell divides, Mvoement, such as movement of bacteruial flagella eukaryotic cilia and undulipodia mucle conctraction and microtubuule motors that move organelles around inside cells, ACtivation of chemicals, phosphyrylated so that is more unstable and can be broken down to release energy, form of heat, as metabolic reactions are controlled by enymes, need to maintain a suitable temp that allows enzymes action to proceed at a speed that will sustain life

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Why do living Organisms need to Respire?

What are plants protctists and some bacteria? What do they use? in what? To carry make what? That contain what? Who can use this? What does respiration release? What does it use it for? Meaning? Making? What does this also transfer? What is ATP? What is it the standard intermediary of? in what? What does each molecule consist of? which is? Plus three of what? Correctly? What can it be hydrolysed to? Releasing how much energy? So energy is immediately avaible to what? What wont it do? and not be? What is ATP described as? How does respiration occur? What Is the energy at each step released joied to? Making? How much ATP is used a day? Dpending on? How much ATP in your body will you have at any point? How does that work then? what is the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with? Such as? Or? What do they require? Whats the source then? draw the striucture of ATP?

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Why do living Organisms need to Respire?

photoautotrophs, sunlight energy in photosynthesis to make large organc molecules that contain chemical energy, they and consumers and decompersrs can then use, releases the enery which is used to phosphorylate (add inorganic phosphate) ADP maing ATP, transfers energy to the ATP molecules, phosphorylated nucleotide, between energy0releasing and energy-consumig reactions in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, adenosine (adenine and ribose sugar) plus three phosphate (phosphory) groups, hydrolysed to ADP and Pi (inorganic phosphate) relasing 30.6kj energy per mol, energy is immediatly avaible to cells in small mangeable amiunts that wukk bit damage the cell and will not be wasted, ATP is described as the universal energy currency, many small steps, joins ADP and Pi to make ATP, 25-50 kg ATP each day, level of activity, 5g ATP in your body at any given time, hydrolysed and resynthesised,synthesis reaction, DNa replciation or protein syntehsis, requiore energy, is an immediate source of energy for these bioligcal processess,

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Name the four main stages of respiration? Where does glycolysis happen? What type of pathway is it? What doesn’t it need? What conditions can it take place in? what actually happens during glycolysis? What sort of sugar is carbon? What about pyruvate? Where does the link reaction happen? What happens at this stage? What is produced? Where does the krebs cycle take place? What happens here? where does oxidative phosphorylation take place? What happens here? what will the last three stages only take place under? What would pyruvate convert to under anaerobic conditions?

During glycolysis, link reaction and krebs cycle what is removed? From what? In what reaction? What dose oxidation reactions involve the loss of? what catalyses these reactions? Although enzymes catalys a wide variety of metabolic reactions what aren’t they good at catalysing? What are needed for the oxidation reactions of respiration? What are the hydrogen atoms combined with? Such as? What do they caryr? To where? what can happen to then later? What will they be involved with here? what does that produce a lot of? what does the delivery of hydrogen atoms to the cristae do? allowing the coenzymes to? From where? what are reduction reactions? What is NAD? What does it help? So what can be carried out? What does NAD stand for? What does it consist of? where is it made? From what? Which is what vitamin? What is the five carbon sugar? What doe one nucleotide contain? what about the other? What can that accept? What can happen to them later? What happens when a molecule of NAD accepts two hydrogen atoms with their electrons? What about when it loses them? What processes is NAD used in? what is coenzyme A made from? Draw the structure for both of these?

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Glycolysis The link reaction krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, cytoplasm of cells, ancient biochemical pathway, doesnt need oxygen and can take place in aerobic or anaerobic oncditons, glucose ( 6 carbon sugar0 is borken down to two molecules of pyruvate (3 carbon compiund), matrix of mitochondria, pyruvate is dehydrogenated (hydrogen removed) and decarboxylated (carboxyl removed) and converted to acetate, matrix of mitochondria, acetate is decarboxylated and dehydrgoenated, folded inner membranes (cristates) of mitochondria, ADP is phosphorylated to ATP, aerboc conditions, pyrivate is coverted to either ethanol or lactate,

hydrogen atoms, subsatrte molecules in oxidation reactions (loss of electronts), dehydrogenase enzymes, oxidation or reducation reactions, coenzymes, conezymes such as NAD, hydrogen atoms which can be later split into hydrogen ions and electrons to the inner mitochondrial membrane, oxidative phosphorylation, a lot of ATP, reoxidises the conenxymes so they can combine with or pick up more hydrogen atoms from the first three stages of respiration additions of electrons, organic non protein molecule that helps dehydrogenase enzymes to carry out oxidation reactions, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, two linked nuceltoides, made in the body from nicotinamide (vitamin b3) the 5 carbo sugar ribose adenine and two phospahte or phospyrl groups, the nitrogenous base adenine, nicotinamide ring, hydrogen atoms, can later be split into a hydrogen ion and an electron, reduced, oxidised, glycolysis the link reactions and krebs cycle and during anaerobic and lactate pathways, adenosine (adenine and ribose0 three phosphate (phosphoryll- groups, pantothenic acid (vitamin b5) and a small cysteamine group (a amine group and sulphur)

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What pathway is glycolysis? Where does it happen? What type of cells (pro or euk) how many reactions happen in it? What is each stage catalysed by? what is also involved? What is the first stage? What sort of sugar is glucose? How many carbons? What its molecule like? What has to happen in order to split it? What happens to one ATP molecule? What is released? What does it attach to? At what carbon? Forming what? What dose glucose 6-phosphate chhagne to? What happens to another ATP molecule? What is the phosphate group attached to? at what carbon? What is this hexose sugar now? What is it called?  what activates the hexose sugar and prevents it leaving the cell? What is it referred to as now? What does the name tell us it is? What is this stage called? how many molecules of ATP has been used at this stage? What is stage 2 called? what happens to each molecule of hexose bisphosphate? Producing ? how many? How many carbon? What does each have attached? What is stage 3 called? what is this process  anaerobic or aerobic? What does it involve? What is removed rom each triose phosphate molecule? Including their? What does this involve? What is the substrate? What are these aided by? what does it do? what does it become? What happens at this stage then? what is also formed at this stage? What is this called? what is stage 4 called? how many enzyme reactions happen? What do they convert? What carbon is pyruvate? What happens to two molecules of ADP? What is added? To two molecules of? via what?

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ancient biochemical pathway, cytoplasm of all lviing cells that respire, por and euk, four reactions, a differnet enzymes, coenzyme NAD, phosphorylation,hexose, six carbon atoms, stable, activated before they can split into two, hydrolysed, phosphate group is released is attachted to the glucose molecule at carbon 6 to form glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, hydrolysed and the phosphate group is released is attachted to fructose 6-phosphate at carbon 1, activated hexose suagr is now called fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, activates the hexose sugar and prevents it from being transported out of the cell, hexose 1,6 bisphosphate, hexose sugar with two phosphate atatched at carbon  and 6, two molecules of ATP for each molecule of glucose, splitting of hexose 1,6 bisphosphate, is split into two molecules of triose phosphate (3-carbon sugar molecule each with one phopshate group attatched), oxidation of triose phosphate, anerobic it invovles oxidation, two hydrogen with their electrons are removed from each triose phosphate molecule (the substrae), dehydrogenase enzymes, coenzyme NAD, hydrogen acceptor, NAD combines with the hydrogen atoms becoming reduced NAD, two molecules of NAD are reduced per molecule of glucose, two molecules of ATP are formed, substrate-level phosphorylation, converison of triose phosphate to pyruvate, four enzyme-catalysed reactions convert each triose phosphate moelcule to a molecule of pyruvate, 3 carbon compound, two molecules of ADP are phosphorylated (an inorgnaic phosphate group Pi is added to two molecules of ATP by substre level pphospoyrlation

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From each molecule of glucose at the beginning how many ATP are there? How many were made? Why two then? whats the net then? how many reduced NAD? What will these carry? Is it directly? Via what? To where? to do what? During what? How many pyruvate are there? What will happen to this? Where? for the next stage of what? What if there is no oxygen in the cytoplasm?

What do we use the fermentation of what to what? By what? What didn’t we realise it involves? What was established alcoholic fermentation caused by? what word was used? What does it mean? What do they use? what did they find?

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two molecules of atp, four were made, two were used to kick start tje process, two molecules of ATP, two molecules of reduced NAD, hydrogen atoms indreictly via a shunt machanism to the inner mitochondrial membrane and be sued to generate more ATP during oxidative phosphorylation, two molecules of pyruvate, actively transported into the mitochondrial matrix for the next stage of aerbic respiratio, it will be changed to lactate or ethanol

glucose to ethanol,yeast, glycolysis was involved, alcholhic fermentation is caused by microorganisms, enzyme, means in yeast, all living things have this metabolic pathway.

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Structure and Function of Mitchondria

What are mitochondria? Where are they found? What are they sites of? what are these?What microscope was used to identify mitochodnria? In what cells? And then in what cells? What microscope then found them? What do all mitochondria have membrane wise? What do these two make up? What is the outer membrane like? What about the inner one? Whats a singular cristae? What do they give the inner membrane? What do the two membranes create? Whats between the two membranes? Where is the matrix? Describe it? What does it consist of? what does it contain?

What shape are they described as? What can their shape do? what size are they usually diameter and length? What can they be? Who may have larger mitochondria? Why? Where are more mitchodnria found? Why? What do these mitochondria usually have? Why densely packed cristae? How many mithcondria may mammalian liver cells contain? what percent may they be of the cell? Can mitochdrina move? How? In some types of cells where are mitochondria positioned give example? How were they moved to that positon?

Where happens in the matrix? What enzymes does it contain? what conenzyme? What does it also contain? what is this? What does it accept from what? What DNA does it contain? what does that code for? What does it also contain of its own? What ribosomes are theys ame as structurally? Whats their function?

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Structure and Function of Mitchondria

organelles, eukaryotic cells, link reactions krebs cycle and oxdative phosphhorylatuion, aerobic stages of respiration, light microscopy, animal cells,plant cells, electron microscope, inner and outer phospholipid membrene, envelope, smooth, folded intro cristate, crista, large surface area, enclose and seperate the two copartmens, intermmebrane space, enclosed by the inner membrane, semi-rigid and gel like cosnsiting of a mixture of proteins and lipids, looped mithcondrial DNA mictondrial ribosemes and enzymes

rod-shaped or thread like, can change, 0.5-1.0um in diameter and 2-6um long, 10um long,  a trained athelte in their muscle/tissues, because metabolocially active cells have a large demand for ATP so tjhey have more mitochodnria, longer and more densely packed cristae, hosue more electron transport chains and more ATP synthase enzymes, 2500 occupying 20% cells volume, can be moved around the cell, cytoskelton (microtubles) near a site of high ATP demand, synaptic knobs of nerve cells, microtubles,

link reaction krebs cycle, that catalysa the stages of these reactions, NAD, oxaloacetate, the 4 carbon compound that accepts acetate from the link reaction, mitcochodnrial DNA which codes for mitochondrial enzymes and other proteins, mitochondrial ribosomes, prokaryote ribosomes, these protiens are assembled,

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Structure and Function of Mitchondria

What is the outer membrane similar to? What does it contain? what do some of them form? What do they allow? What are other proteins in this membrane?

What is different about the inner membrane? What is it impermeable to? Including? Like? What is the inner membrane like? Giving it what? What dose it have embedded in it? And? What are the elctron carriers? What are they arranged into? What is each electron carrier? What is each associated with? What are the cofactors? What are they? What do they contain? what can the cofactors do? why? To what? By accepting what? Oxidised to what? How? What enzyme are they? Why? What do some of the elctron carriers also have? What does that do? using what energy? What is the inner membrane impermeable to? What accumulates? Where? what is the result?  What size are the ATP synthase enzymes? Where are they? What are they also known as? What do they allow? What do protons flow down? Through what? From where to where? what is this called? what is the force of this flow called? what does it drive? Allowing what? What is FAD? What happens to it at a stage in Krebbs? What is it tightly bound to? Where is that? What doesn’t get pumped into the inert membrane space? What do they do instead? what does FAD stand for? Whats it derived from?

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Structure and Function of Mitchondria

the phospholipid composition is similiar to the membrnes around other organelles, protines, form cahnnels and carriers, passages of molecues such as pyruvate, enzymes,

has a different lipid composition, impermeable to mos small ions, hydrogen ions (protons), folded into many cristae, large surface area, electron carriers and ATP syntahse enzymes, protien compelxes, electron transport chains, enzyme, cofactor, non-protien groups, haem groups that contain an iron atom, can accept and donate electrons becuase the iron atoms can become reduced to Fe2+ by accepting an electron and oxidiseed to Fe3+ by donating an electron to the next electron carrier, oxireductase, involved in oxidation and reduction reactions, a conezyme that pumps protons from the matrix to the intermembrane space, using energy released from the passage of electrons, small ions, protons, intermmebrne space, is at a lower pH that the matrix, large and protrude from the inner membrane to the matrix, stalked particles, allow protons to pass through, a proton gradiet, ATP synthase enzymes, intermembrnae space to the matrix, chemiosmosis, the rotation of part of the enzyme and allows ADP and Pi (inogaic phosphate) to be joined to make ATP, coenzyme, reduced, bound to a dehydrogenase enzyme that is embedded in the intermembrnae, the hydgrone atoms accepted by FAD, pass back into the mitchondrial matrix, flavine adenine dinucleotide, dervied from vitmin b2 (riboflavin) adenine ribose and tphosphate groups

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The Link Reaction and Krebs Cycle

What was produced in glycolysis? What is it transported across? To where? what is it changed into? Called? during what reaction? What happens to it next? During what?

What does pyruvate have to undergo to change to acetate? What type of reactions is this? What happens in pyruvate dehydrogenase? what happens in pyruvate hydrogenase? What does that eventually become? What accepts the hydrogen atoms? What does Coenzyme A do? what does it become?what is CoA function? Give the equation for link reaction? Why are two molecules of pyruvate considered in the equation? What isn’t produced? However what will each reduced NAD take a pair of? to where? what will they be used to do? during what?

Where does the krebs cycle take place? What is it a series of? what does it oxidise to what? What does it produce? by what? What does it reduce? What do these reduced coenzymes have the potential to do? during what? Where does the acetate come from? What does it join to? Called? to form what? How many  carbon is this? What is released? What is able to do now? What happens to citrate? Meaning? What also happens to it? Meaning? Forming? What is produced? What accepts the hydrogen? Becoming? What happens to the 5-carbon compound molecule? Forming what?whats produed? What is the 4-carbon compound changed into? What happens during this reaction? To produce what? What is this? What is the second 4 carbon compound changed into? What is removed? What aceepts them? What does it become? What happens to the third 4-carbon compound? What is produced?

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The Link Reaction and Krebs Cycle

two molecules of pyruvate, inner and outer mitochodnrial membranes, matrix, 2-carbon compound acetate, during the link reaction, oxidised during krebs cycle

decarboxylation and dehydrogenation, enzyme-catalysed reactions, removes hydrogen atoms from pyruvate, the carboxyl group which becomes carbon dixoide from pyruvtae, coenzyme NAD, acceopts acetate to become acetyl coenzyme A, carry acetate to Krebs cycle, 2pyruvvate+ 2NAD+ 2CoA-->2Co2 + 2reducedNAD+ 2acetylCoA, two kolcules of pyruvate were dervied from each molecule of glucose in glycolysis, no ATP, a pari of hydrogen atoms to the inner mitchondrial membrnae and they be used to make ATP during oxidative phosphorylation

mitochondriamatrix, serie of enzyme-catalaysed reactions that oxidise the acetyl group of acetly CoA to two molecules of carbon dioxide, one molecule of ATP by substarte-level phosphorylation, reduces three moelcules of NAD and one molecule of FAD, the potential to produce more ATP during oxidaitve phosphorylation, acetly coenzyme A, 4carbon compound, oxaloacetate, forming 6-carbon citric acid, is released and becomes avaible to more acetate in Link Reaction, decarboxylated, one molecule of caron is removed, and dehydrogenated meaning a pair of hydrogen atom are removed, 5-carbon compound, molecule of NAD, reduced NAd, decarobylated and dehydrogentaed to form 4-carbon compound, another reduced NAD, changed to another 4-carbon compund, a molecule of ADP is phosphorylated to produce a molecule fo ATP, substare-level phosphorylation, changed into another 4-carbon compound, pair of hydrogen atoms are removed and accepted by the coenzyme FAD, redued FAD,  furhter dehydrogenated and regenerates oxaloacetate,  another reduced NAD,

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The Link Reaction and Krebs Cycle

How many turns in the cycle for each acetate? Whats it made from? How many turns for each molecule of glucose? Name the four molecules produced from glucose? Give the number of how many produced from the link reaction? Krebs cycle? is oxygen present in these stages? Will they occur without it? What is it then? can other food substartes other than glucose be respired? What are fatty acids broken ddown to? What can they enter? Via what? What happens to amino acids? How? What may the rest of the molecule do? or be changed intio? Depending on?

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The Link Reaction and Krebs Cycle

one turn, made form one molecule of pyruvate, two turns for each molecule fo glucose, Reduced NAD and FAD Carbon Dixoide and ATP, Reduced NAD 2 6, Reduced FAD 0 2, Carbon Dioxide 2 4, ATP 0 2, no, they wont occur in the absence of oxygen so they are aerbic, other food substares, acetate and cen enter krebs cycle via coenzyme A, deaminated meaning the NH2 goroup is remvoed, rest of the molecule may enter krebs cycle directly or be changed to pyruvate or acetate depening on the type of amino acid,

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Oxidative Phosphorylation and Chemiosmois

What does the final stage of aerobic respiration involve?  Where are they? What are these membrane slike? What does this do? what do reduced NAD and FAD do? how? what do they do? to what? what is the first electron carrier that accepts electrons from NAD? What complex? Called? also known as? Where do the protons go? What are the electrons passed along? What are they donated to? What is this? What happens as energy flows along the electron transport chain? By what? associated with? What are they called? to do what? what does this build? What gradient is this also? What other gradient? What builds up in the intermembrane space? What cant the hydrogen ions diffuse across? What can they diffuse through? What are these channels associated with? What is this flow of hydrogen ions (protons) called?

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Oxidative Phosphorylation and Chemiosmois

electron carriers embdedd in the inner mitchondrial membranes, cristae, increasig surface area for electron carriers and ATP synthase enzymes, are reoxidised when they donate hydrgoen atoms which are aplit into protons and electrons to the lectron carriers, a protein complex, complex I, NADH  - coenzyme Q reducatse (also known as NADH dehydrogenase, into the soloution in the matrix,chain of electron carriers and then donated to molecular oxygen, the final electron acceptor, energy is released and used by coenzymes assosiated with some electron carriers (complexes  I, III, IV) to pump the protons across to the intermembrane space, proton gradient which is also a pH gradiet and an electrochemical gradient, potential energy, the lipid part of the inner membrane but can through ion channels, the enzyne ATP synthase, chemiosis

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Oxidative Phosphorylation and Chemiosmois

What is oxidative phosphorylation the formation of? by the addition of what to what? in the presence of? what happens as protons flow through an ATP synthase enzyme? Joining what? whats Pi? forming what? where do the electrons pass from the last electron carrier to? What is this? What also joins? What happens to oxygen? Give the formula? How many molecules from each glucose molecule are made before oxidative phosphorylation? During what reactions? Via what? where are more ATP made? Where though? Where do two reduced NAD come from? Another two? How many from krebs? How many reduced FAD from glycolysis? From link reaction? From krebs? What do the reduced NAD & FAD provide? To what? to be used in what? what does Reduce NAD also provide? What does this contribute to? For what? what do hydrogens from from reduced FAD stay in? but combine with what? to form what? how many ATP can the 10 molecules of reduced NAD theoretically produce? during what? therefore how many molecules of ATP for every molecule of reduced NAD that is reoxidised? What are all the stages of respiration? How many ATP produced from one glucose molecule across all stages? Give one reason why this is rarely achieved? Reducing what? what is some ATP produced used for? What is some of the ATP also used for?

Do all sources guve exact number sof how many ATP generated from the aerobic respiration of one molecule? What was thought originally was made from reduced FAD? How many from NAD? What do recent studies show? What do some sources suggest about protein compelxes? What does this model predict a total of?

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Oxidative Phosphorylation and Chemiosmois

is the formation fo ATP by the addition of inroganic phosphate to ADP in the prescence of oxygen, they drive the rotation of part of the enzyme and join ADP and Pi (inorganic phosphate) to form ATP, to molecular oxgen which is the final electron acceptor, hydrogen ions, oxygen is reduced to water, 4h+ + 4e---> 2H20, two olecules of ATP have bee gained during glycolysis by susbatre-level phosphorylation, two molecules of ATP have been made during krkebs cycle by substare- level phosphorylatuio, will be made during oxidative phosphorylation where the reduced NAD and FAD moelcules are reoxidised, glycolysis, link, 6, 0, 0, 2, electrons to the electron transport chain to be used in oxidative phosphorylation, hydrogen ions that contribute to the build up of the proton gradient for chemiosmosis, matrix but combine with oxyegn to form water, 26 during oxidative phosphorylation, 2.6, glycolysis link reaction krebs cycle oxdative phosyprylation substarte-level hpsophorylation chemisosims, 30, this is rarely achieved,leak across the mitochodnrial membrnae reducing the number of protons to generate the proton motive force, actively transport pyruvate into the mithcondria, shuttle to bring hydrogen from reduced NAD ade during glycolysis in the cytoplasm into the mitchondri,

varied in estimates, 2 ATP molecule were made for each molecle of reduced FAD and 3 for reduced NAD, may be lower to 1.5 and 2.5,  protein compelx assiciated with reduce FAD does not pump protons these mya pass into the intermmbrane space and the ATP produced during oxidative phosphyrlation to 2.6 per molecule for reduced NAD, 30 ATPS for eachj molecule of respiration respired aerobically

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Evaluating the Evidence for Chemiosmosis

what is chemiosmosis the diffusion of? through what? what does it relate to specifically?across what/ what is it coupled with?

what was the first link made? what is ATP thought of as?by the end of that decade what did scientists know linked this metabolic pathway? such as what stage? what didnt the yknow? what did they think the energy assoiacted with reduced NAD was first stored? what didnt investigations find? what were they doing in the 60's? using whhat equipment? what technique? what was identified?

what did peter mitchell find? what did hesay this was? what did he say the movement of ions across the membrane down an electrochemical gradienproide? what did he call this? what is the inner mitochindrial membrane therefore? what did he postulate? what do hydrogen ion then do? down a what? through what? attached to what? what is the force of this flow called? what does it drive? what are the stalked particles? what was established some of the compelxes in the elctron transport chain have? what can they use from where to do what?

what did some researcyhes do to isolated mitchodnria? what did this do? what did the outer membrane do? releasing what? what did they further treat? what is this? what did they treatit with? what did they rupture? releasing what? what did this allow them to idneify? what did they figure out? what did they find embedde din the inner mithcondrial embrnae? what did electron transfer in mitoplats prduce little? what did they conclude? what happed when the stalked particles were removed? when wasnt ATP made? what is that? known to block? intacte membrnes have a potential difference across the inner membrane of? more negatvie on what side? what was the pH where?

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Evaluating the Evidence for Chemiosmosis

between oxidation of sugars and the formation of ATP, universal energy currency of cells, reduced NAD linked metabolica pathways such as krebs cycle with the production of ATP, the biochemical mechanism by which ATP was made and thought that the nergy assoicated with reduced NAD was first stored in a hi energy intermediate chemical before being used to make ATP, did not find scuh a highe- energy intermediate, extracting mitchondria from cells and examining them, electron micropscopes and special staining techniques, outer an dinner membrane with a space between them, inner membrane folded into cristae covered on the inner surface with many small (9nm diamtere) mushroom-shaped particles,

the build-up of hydrogen ions on one side of a membrane would be a soiurce of potneital energy and that the movement of ions across the membrane, the energy needed to power tthe formation of ATP from ADP and Pi, chemiosmosis theory,energy-transducing membrane, tthat the energy released from the transfer of electrons along the electron transport chain is used to pump hydrogen ions from the matrix to the intermembrane space, back into the matrix, concentration gradient, protein channels attched to enzymes, proton motive force, dive the formations of ATP, ATP syntahse eenzymes, coezyme, the energy released from the electron transport to pump hydrgoen ions across the membrane, intermemebrane sapce

isolated mitchodnria by plaing thme in soloutions of high water potential, water diffused into the organelle and the outer membren ruptured, the contents of the intermembrane space, furhtre treating the resulting mitoplasts (mitchondria stripped of their outer membrane), strong detergent, rupture the inner membrane and release the contents of the matrix, various enzymes in the mitochidrnai are, link reactions and krebs happen in the matrix, electron transfer chain enzymes are embedded in the inner mitchodrnail membrane, very little ATP, intermmebarne space was invovled,stalkde particles are removed, oligomycin, block flow of protons through the ion cahnnel part of the stalked particles, -200mv, more negative on matrix side than intemrbane, pH lower in the intermembrane,

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Anaerobic Respiration in mammals and yeast

what does oxyegn act as in oxidate phosphorylation? what if oxygen isnt presence? what stops? what process are left as a soruce of ATP? where does reduced NAD come from? what has to happen to it? what if it doesnt? what dose this increase the chances of under what conditions? for eukayrotic cells how nay pathways are their to reoxidise NAD? name one? such as?use what? what cna also use this pathway? what do animals use? what do neither of these pathways produce? so is none made? how many?how? during? how much ATp does glycolysi produce? what about redced NAD? what about pyruvtae?

where does lactate fermentation occur? during what avtivioty? such as? what is in high demande? for what? what is their deficit of? what must happen to reduced NAD? what is the hydroen acceptor? what does it accept? from what? what is NAD now? what is it avaible to do? from what? what can continue? geneating enough what to do what? what does the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase catalyse? together with what? where is the lactate carried? away from where to where? when can the lactate e converted back to pryuvate? what can it enter then? via what? or it may be recyled to what? it is not the build up of lacatae that causes muscle fatigue but speifically what? why not the lactate?

under anaerobic conditions in yeast cells what does each pyruvate molecule loses? what happens to it? becoming? what sort of reaction is this? what enzyme? not present where? what does it hav bound to it?  called? what does ethanal accept? froom what?whathappens to it? becoming? catalysed by what? what can this reoxidised Nad do? from what? during what? what is yeast? meaning? when is it killed? when is the rate of growth faster? with equal what? at the beginning of brewing process what is yeast grown under? placed where? undergoing?

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Anaerobic Respiration in mammals and yeast

final electron acceptor, the electron transport chain cannot function, krebs and link, anaerbic process like glycolysis, generated in oxidation of glucose, reoxidised so that glycolysis can keep operating, chane of the organism surving under temporary adverse conditions, two pathways, fungi, yeast, ethanol (alchol) fermentation, plant cells such aas root cells under waterlogged conditions, lactate fermentation, ATP but two molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose are made by substarte-level phosphorylation during glycolysis, two moleucles of aTP and two molecules of reduced NAD and two molecules of pyruvate per molecule of glucose

mammalian tissue, vigorous activity, escaping predators, demand for ATP is high for muscle contraction, oxyge deficit, reoxidised to NAD, hydrogen acceptor, hydrogen atoms from reduced NAD, reoxidised and is availbe to accept more hydrogen atoms  from glucose, glycolysis, generating enough ATP to sustai muscle contraction, lactate deydrgoenase catalyses the oxidation of reduced NAD togetehr with the reduction of pyruvate to lactate, in the bloo away from muscle to liver, lacate can be converted back to pyruvate, enter krebs cycle via link reaction or be recycled to glycose and glycogen, not a build up of lactat but muscle fatigue as muscle fibres can still function in the precense of lactate as long as their pH is kept constant via a buffer, specifically the reduction in pH will redu ezyme activity in the muscles

each pyruvate loses a caron dioxide molecule, decarbocylated and becoems ethanal, enzyme catalysed by enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (not in anaimsl), coenzyme thiamine dophosphate bound to it, hydrogen atoms fro reduced NAD which becomes reoxidised as ethanoal is reduced to ethanol cataslyed by ethanol dehydrgease, can now accept more hydrogen atoms from glucose during glycolysis, facultative anaerobe, live without oxygen, cocnetration of ethanol builds up to around 15%, faster under aerboic conditions with equal concentrations of glucse grown under aerbic condtiosn and then placed in anaerbic to undergo alcholic fermentation

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Respiratory Substrates

where is the majoirty of ATP produced during respirtaion? when hydrogen ions flow through what? associated with? on the inner? what do the hydrogen ions and electrons then combine with what? producing? the more protons the more what produced? it makes sense then the more what atoms there are in a what substrate the more what can be generated when that substrate is respired? what is a respiratory substrtae? it also makes sense that if there are more what atoms per mole of what subsytarte the more what is needed to respire that substance? what is the general formula for carbohydrate? what is the chief respiratory substarte? give examples of mammalian cells that canuse only glucose for respiration? what do animals do with glucose? what do plants store it as? what can happen to both? for what? name two other monosaccharides? are changed to what for what? what is the theoretical maximum energy yield for glucose? how much KJ does it take to produce 1mol ATP? theoretically the respiration of 1mol glucose should produce nearly how much ATP? what is the acutal yield? effiency of what percent? what is the remaining energy released as? what does thjis help maintain? allowing what reactions to proceed?

what happens to excess amino acids after protein digestio? what does this involve the removal of? conversion to what? what is the rest of the molecule changed to? what can happen to these? and respired to what? what happens when an orgaism is starced or prolong edexercise? what can some be converted to> or to? carried into what stage? what do some enter directly? the number of hydrogen atoms per mole accepted by NAD and then used in oxidative phosphorylation is slightly more or less than the  number of hydrogen toms per mole of glucose? so what do protiens release more, lesss than equivalent mass of carbohyrtaes?

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Respiratory Substrates

oxidative phosphorylation when hydrogen ions flow through channels assoiciated with ATp synthase enzymes on the inner mitochondruial membranes, hydrogen ions and electrons then combine with oxygen to produce water, the more ATP, more hydrogen atoms there are in a molecule of respiratory substare the mopre ATP when the subsatre is respired, more hydrogen atoms per mole of respiratory substart then more oxygen is needed to respire that substance, Cn(H20)n,  glucose, brain cells and red blood cells, can only use glycose, store glucose as glycogen and plants store it as starch, hydrolysed to glucose for respiration, frutose and galactose are changed for respiration, 2970 kj mol-1, 30.6kj to produce 1 mol ATP, respiration of 1 mol of glucose shoudl produce nearly 94mol ATP, 30mol ATP, 32%, released as heat which helps maintain a suitable body temperature, allowing enzyme-cotrnoledd reactions to proceed,

deaminated, removal of the amine gtoup and its conversion to urea, changed to glyogen or fat, stored or later respred to release energy, protein from muscle can be hydroglysed o amino acids which can be respired, pyruvate or to acetate and can be carried to krebs driectly, is more, than the number of hydrien atoms per mole of glucose so proteins release slightly more energy than equivalent massess of carbohydrate

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Respiratory Substrates

what are lipids also? for what? particualr what tissues? what hydroylses triglycerides? to what? what ca glyerol be converted tio? and then what? what about fatty acids? what are fatty acids? with a what group? hence in each molecule there are many and even more? what are these molecules a source of? for what? so they produce a lot of? what is each fatty acid combined with? what does this require? from what? where is the fatty acid- CoA complex is transported? what happen to it? by what pathway? during this breakdown what aer formed? what are rleased from CoA? what do they enter? what is produced? via?what happens to the large amount of reduced NAD? during? producing large amounts of? via? give the repsiratory substarte and the mean energy value in Kj?

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Respiratory Substrates

important respiratory substraets for many tissue spartciary muscle, hdyrolysed by lipase to fatty acids and glycerol, converted to glucseo and then respired but fatty acids cannot, long-chain hyrocarbons with a carboyxylic acid group, each molecule there are many carbon atoms and even more hydrogen atoms, are a source of many protons for oxidative phosphorylation so they produce a lot of ATP, combined with CoA, energy from the hydrolyiss of a molecule of ATP to AMP (adenosine monophosphate) and two inorganic phosphate groups, fatty acid-oA complex is transprted into the mitochodnrial matrix wher it is broken down into 2-carbonac etly groups that are attached to CoA, by the beta oxidation pathway reduced NAD and reduced FAD are formed, released from CoA and enter krebs cucle with three molecules of reduced NAD one molecule of reduced FAD and one molecule of ATP by subsatre-level phosphorylaton are formed for eah acetate, of reduced NAD is reoxidised at the electron transport chain during oxidative phosphorylation producing large amounts of ATP by chemiosmosis, carbohydrate -15.8 kjg-1, lipid-39.4 and protein- 17.0

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