A2 Psychology - Stress

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Causes - Work

Work?

-> Major form of stress

-> poor relationships, job demands, lack of control etc

JOHANNSSON

  • See if work is a predictor of stress
  • temperature, blood tests, self report on irritability, absence records
  • finishers had higher irritability + temperature than cleaners.

-> Nature of work causes stress

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Causes - Hassles and Life events

Hassles and Life Events?

-> Hassles - daily inconviences

-> Life events- Larger, need adjustments

Kanner

  • See whether hassles/life events are a greater predictor of stress
  • hassles/life events scale/Hscl/Bradburne morale scale
  • Hassles had stronger positive correlation with stress

-> Hassles are a better predictor of stress

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Causes - Lack of control

Lack of control?

-> Control = power over an event

-> Perceived/actual control

Geer and Maisel

  • See whether having no control increases stress
  • Car crash victim slides with GSR
  • Actual control - least stress/ Perceived control - Most stress

-> ignorance is bliss if no actual control

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Causes - Evaluation

High EV; e.g. Kanner + Johannsson

Low EV; e.g. Geer and Maisel

Useful; Johannsson+Kanner+Geer and Maisel - Knowledge

Not useful; Geer and Maisel - Low ev limits p.apps

Ethics- Pop; Kanner + Geer and Maisel - sensitive questions and disturbing images

Reliable; Johannsson - consistent/Kanner - reprint/G+M - Standardised

Valid; Johannsson - Physio = objective/Geer and Maisel = high controls

Invalid; Kanner - Easy to lie

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Measuring Stress - Combined

Combined?

-> Self reports - e.g. questionnaires

-> Physiological - e.g. blood tests/body temperature

Johansson

  • SR - caffiene intake
  • Physiological - body temperature
  • higher body temperature = higher irritability

-> combined can be used to measure stress and compares two.

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Measuring Stress - Self Report

Self Reports?

-> Thoughts, feelings and beliefs

-> interviews/questionnaires

Kanner

  • Hassles and Life events scales.
  • Hassles had the strongest positive correlation with stress

-> show how much a person is suffering from stress

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Measuring Stress - Physiological

Physiological?

-> Physical symptoms of stress

-> Measures how body changes e.g. GSR - sweat

Geer and Maisel

  • GSR
  • High control = less stress

-> Stress can be measured by looking at physical changed

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Measuring Stress - Evaluation

Valid; Combined +Physiological as both use objective measures

Invalid; Self report - subjective measures

Reliable; SR - easily remeasured/Physio - reliable measures/ Combined - Consistent

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Managing Stress - Cognitive

Cognitive?

-> Conceptualisation - Learn about stress

-> Skill acquisition + Rehearsal - Learn to cope

-> Application + Follow through - Practice

Meichenbaum

  • See if SIT is effective way of managing stress
  • 8 sessions of SIT/SD
  •  SIT = least anxiety

-> SIT gets people to perceive stress more positively

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Managing Stress - Behaviourist

Behaviourist?

-> Learn to control stress via operant conditioning

Budzynski

  • Biofeedback/fake biofeedback/waiting list
  • Biofeedback = most improved after follow ups

-> operant conditioning decreases stress

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Managing Stress - Social

Social?

-> Cohen - Esteem support/info support/instrumental support/social companionship

-> Actual/Perceived support

Waxler-Morrison

  • Asked breast cancer patients about social support
  • more social support = less stress

-> Friends, collegues, family etc can reduce stress

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Managing Stress - Evaluation

EFFECTIVE

Mcgrath - 9 year old girl SD

Budzynski - Biofeedback = effective

Waxler-Morrison - Social support = effective

NOT EFFECTIVE

Mcgrath - Sample = 1 girl

Budzynski - Sample = volunteer so more effort

Waxler-Morrison - Sample = women

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