A2 Psychology - Relationship study cards

A collection of cards with all the studies you'd need for questions on each of these topics.

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  • Created by: Hannah
  • Created on: 16-06-11 10:52

The formation of relationships


The formation of relationships

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The formation of relationships

Griffit and Guay (1969)- participants did a creative task by an experimenter, then asked to rate their experimenter. This rating was highest when the experimenter had positively evaluated the participants performance on the task.

Aron et al (2005) found that participants who measured very high on self report questionnaires of romantic love also showed strong activity in particular areas of the brain including the ventral tegmental area.

Hays (1985) found that we gain satisfaction from giving as well as recieving.

Newcombe (1956) conducted a study using race relations and sexual attitudes questionnaire, found that people formed friendships with those that are similar to each other.

Kerchoff and Davis (1962) found that in relationships of people who had been together for more or less than 18 months, different things were important to them. Early in a relationship, physical attractiveness is important, and later on, personality compatibility is more important.

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Maintenance of relationships


Maintenance of relationships

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Maintenance of relationships

Simpson et al (1990) asked participants to rate members of the opposite sex in terms of attractiveness; those participants who were already involved in a relationship gave lower ratings.

Rusbult and Martz (1995) argue that when investments are high, such as financial security, and alternatives are low, such as having nowhere to live, it could still be considered a profit situation and a woman might choose to remain in a relationship like that even if she's being abused.

Stafford and Canary (2006) asked over 200 married couples to complete measures of equity and relationship satisfaction. Findings showed that satisfaction was highest for spouses who percieved their relationships to be equitable, followed by over-benefited partners, and lowest for under-benefited partners

Brandau-Brown (2007) reject equity theory as it is an incomplete rendering of how married people behave with respecct to each other.

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The breakdown of relationships


The breakdown of relationships

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The breakdown of relationships

Shaver et al (1985) going to different places, such as university, puts strain on the relationship and is often responsible for breakdown

Boekhout et al (1999)showed how such affairs might be a direct reaction to the percieved lack of skills of stimulation in the current relationship.

Rohlfing (1995) found that 70% of students had experienced a long distance romantic relationship, and 90% had experienced a long distance friendship.

Tashiro and Frazier (2003) surveyed undergrads who had recently broken up with a romantic partner, and typically reported emotional distress, but also personal growth- as in, they had clearer ideas about future partners.

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Sexual selection


Sexual selection

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Sexual selection

Clarke and Hatfield (1989) experimenters approached total strangers on a uni campus, said 'Hi,I've been noticing you around campus and i find you very attractive'. They then asked them one of 3 questions: 1) would you go on a date with me?, 2) would you go back to my apartment with me?, or 3) would you have sex with me? Females responded with 50% would date him, 6% would go back to his apartment, and 0% would have sex with him. Males responded 50% would date her, 69% would go back to her apartment, and 75% would have sex with her..!

Penton-Voak (1999) found that women have different preferences for mates dependent on their stage of the menstrual cycle. Women found a slightly feminised version of a male face most attractive for a long term relationship. But for a short term sexual relationship, the preferred shape of face was more masculinised

Miller et al (2007) researchers caluclated the tips earned by lap dancers at various stages of their menstrual cycle, and found that those who were in their most fertile oestrus phase of their cycle earned almost twice as much tippage as girls who weren't in oestrus.

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Parental investment


Parental investment

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Parental investment

Buss (1995) suggests that sexual jealousy evolved as a response to problems caused by sexual infidelity. Males are more jealous of the sexual act (to avoid cuckoldry), and women are more jealous of the shift in emotional focus (to avoid loss of resources).

Geher et al (2007) used a questionnaire on 91 non-parent heterosexual undergraduates, which had parenting scenarios and statements to do with parenting. There were no sex differences on questions regarding parenting, but males showed significantly higher heart rate when confronted with scenarios that emphasised the cost of parenting.This suggests males are less biologically prepared than females for parenting.

Salmon and Daly (1998) suggest that m,any younger children don't bother to compete but opt out of competition for attention entirely, and develop cooperativeness to help them form alliances with non-relatives.

Lalumiére et al (1996) suggests that steering children along different developmental paths is a parental strategy to maximise each childs strengths.

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Childhood influences


Childhood influences

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Childhood influences

Qualter and Munn (2005) children learn from their experiences with other children.

Nangle et al (2003) suggest that childrens friendships are a training ground for adult relationships.

Richard and Schneider (2005) found that girls have more intimate friendships than boys, and are more likely to report care and security in their relationships with other girls.

Erwin (1993) boys relationships are more competitive.

Shaver et al (1988) said that what we experience as romantic lovein adulthood is an integration of three behavioural systems acquired in infancy: attachment, caregiving and sexuality.

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Adolescent influences


Adolescent influences

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Adolescent influences

Allen and Land (1999) suggest that adolescent relationships are based on an internal model of relationships formed from their own parent-child relationships.

Madesn found that moderate or low dating frequency in adolescence predicted higher quality relationships in young adulthood, and higher dating frequency in adolescence predicted lower quality relationships in young adulthood.

Larson et al (1996) used pagers to find out what 10-18 year olds were doing at random times during the day. Amount of time spent with family decreased sharply during adolescence, but the time spent with each parent individually was fairly consistent throughout. This suggests that adolescent relationships supplement rather than replace parent-child relatinships.

Haynie (2003) found that romantic involvement increased some forms of deviance in adolescents by as much as 35%

Neeman et al (1995) found that romantic involvement in early to middle adolescence was associated with decreases in academic achievement.

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Relationships in different cultures


Relationships in different cultures

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Relationships in different cultures

Myers et al (2005) compared relationships in India with relationships in the US. No differences in marital satisfaction were found.

Xiaohe and Whyte (1990) found that women in Chengdu, China, who had married for love, felt better about their marriages than women who experienced arranged marriages.

Argyle et al (1986) studied relationship rules in different cultures. Different rules were seen as relevant to relationships across the UK,Italy, Hong Kong and Japan. All cultures acknowledged the importance of rules such as showing courtesy and respect, and avoiding social intimacy.

Erikson (1968) believed that the establishment of an intimate relationship is an essential task of young adulthood. If unsuccessful, it willlead to social isolation.

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Brill! Just what i needed, thanks!!

Steph Felgate

Your a lifesaver!

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