A2 Psychology G544

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  • Created by: Ellie
  • Created on: 16-06-13 13:47

Social - Assumptions

  • All behaviour occurs in a social context even when no one else is physically present
  • A major influence on peoples behaviour is other people andthe society they have created
  • An individuals behaviour is effected by situational factors
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Social - Srengths and Weaknesses

Strengths

  • Social have stronger influence than dispositonal factors
  • Provides explanations for phenomenons
  • Explains prejudice and discrimination
  • Uses scientific methods in research

Weaknesses

  • Underestimates what people bring to a situation
  • Ignores development over time
  • Unrepresentitive samples
  • Lab experiments so lack ecological validity
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Social - Studies to support

AS Studies

  • Milgram - Obedience to authority
  • Reicher and Haslam - Prison stimulation
  • Piliavin et al - Subway samaritan

A2 Studies

  • Farrington - Documenting offending behaviour from childhood to adulthood
  • Sutherland - Influence of peers
  • Wikstrom and Tafel - Poverty and disadvantaged neighbourhoods
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Cognitive - Assumptions

  • Behaviour is largely explained in terms of how the mind operates
  • The mind is simliar to a computer, inputting, storing and retreiving data
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Cognitive - Strengths and Weaknesses

Strengths

  • Scientific methods - good controls
  • Useful applications
  • Contributes to understanding of human behaviour
  • Intergrates well with other approaches

Weaknesses

  • Over simplistic - ignores complexities of human functioning
  • Unrealistic - lacks ecological validity
  • Ignores emotion and freewill in humans
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Cognitive - Studies to support

AS studies

  • Loftus and Palmer - Language effect on eye witness testimonys
  • Baron-Cohen - Cognitive explanation of autism
  • Samuel and Bryant - Conservation in children

A2 studies

  • Beck - Cognitive theory for depression
  • Yochelson and Samenow - Thinking patterns in criminals
  • Gudjohnsson and Bownes - Atrribution of blame in criminals
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Individual Differences - Assumptions

  • Behaviour which deviates from the norm is considered abnormal
  • Makes generalisations about differences between people
  • Focuses on the unique characteristic of an individual
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Individual Differences - Strengths and Weaknesses

Strengths

  • Good understanding of human behaviour
  • Finds causes for disorders
  • Exmplains differences and reduces prejudice
  • Understands that humans are unique

Weaknesses

  • Small samples due to rareity of participants
  • Lacks generalisability
  • Ethical issues - exploitation of participants
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Individual differences - Studies to support

AS Sudies

  • Thigpen and Cleckley - Case Study of Eve white
  • Rosenham - Being sane in insane places
  • Griffiths - Cognitive biases of gamblers on fruit machines

A2 Studies

  • Rosenham and Seligman - Defining abnormality
  • Ford and Widiger - Bias in diagnosis
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Developmental - Assumptions

  • Adult behaviour is affected by childhood experiences
  • Developmental changes are a result of inherited factors
  • Life time experiences, including interactions with others, effect behaviour
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Developmental - Strengths and Weaknesses

Strengths

  • Understands effects of childhood
  • Contributes to understanding of nature/nurture debate
  • Allows us to measure behaviour over time

Weaknesses

  • Data susceptible to bias
  • Can be deterministic
  • Takes a long time to conduct and requires greated resources
  • May lack generalisability
  • May ignore cultural factors
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Developmental - Studies to support

AS Studies

  • Bandura, Ross and Ross - Transmission of agression through imitation
  • Samuel and Bryant - Conservation in children
  • Freud - Case Study of Little Hans

A2 Studies

  • Kohlberg - Moral Development
  • Sutherland - The influence of peers
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Physiological - Assumptions

  • Behaviour and experience can be reduced to functioning of physiological systems
  • All that is psychological is first physiological
  • All behaviour has a genetic basis
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Physiological - Strengths and Weaknesses

Strengths

  • Scientific methods in research - good controls
  • Provides evidence for nature in the nature/nurture debate
  • Helps udnerstand behaviour that would be impossible to test any other way

Weaknesses

  • Reductionist
  • Can't explain how mind and body interact
  • Over simplistic - ignores influecne of environment
  • Simplifies complex behaviours
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Physiological - Studies to support

AS Studies

  • Maguire - Hypocampus size in taxi drivers
  • Sperry - Effect of removing the corpus callosum
  • Dement and Kleitman - Relationship between eye movements and dreaming

A2 Studies

  • Brunner - Study of a family of aggresive males
  • Gottesman and Sheilds - Twin study on schizophrenia
  • Karp and Frank - Comparing drug treatments with non drug treatments
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Psychodynamic - Assumptions

  • Human development is a dynamic process
  • Early experience is very important as it shapes personality
  • Mind is split into three areas, the preconscious, conscious and unconscious
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Psychodynamic - Strengths and Weaknesses

Strengths

  • Recognises childhood as a critical period
  • Idiographic - one paricipant, rich data
  • Qualitative Data - detailed understanding

Weaknesses

  • No evidence just experiments
  • Non-generalisable samples
  • Deterministic - predicts behaviour and assumes reactions
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Psychodynamic - Studies to support

AS Studies

  • Thigpen and Cleckley - Case study of Eve White
  • Freud - Case Study of Little Hans
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Behaviourist - Assumptions

  • All behaviour is learnt from the environment after birth
  • Behaviour is determined by the environment
  • Only observable behaviour should be studied
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Behaviourist - Strengths and Weaknesses

Strengths

  • Very good reliability
  • Practical applications
  • Understands nurture in the nature/nurture debate

Weaknesses

  • Use of animals in research
  • Controlled lab experiments - lack ecological validity
  • Deterministic - assumes humans are passive to conditioning
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Behaviourist - Studies to support

AS Studies

  • Bandura, Ross and Ross  - Transmission of aggression through imitation
  • Savage - Rumabaugh - Language acquistion in chimps
  • Milgram - Obedience to authority

A2 Studies

  • Skinner - Operant conditioning using Skinners box 
  • Pavlov - Classical conditioning in dogs
  • Watson and Rayner - Little Albert classical conditioning
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