Diagnosis- DSM & ICD
Diagnostic tools used in the Western World.
ICD-10= The International Classification of Diseases-
- Published by WHO ('World health organisation')
- Existing its 10th revision
- Consists of 10 main groups
- Diagnoses mental and physical disorders
- Lists a disorder and a number of symptoms of associated with the disorer- allowing for either a confident or fairly confident diagnosis to take place.
- Has 10/11 categories and the criterea for 100 disorders
DSM= Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-
- Consists of 5 Axis for consideration
- Main categories for disorders are axis 1 and 2
- Has 17 Categories and criterea for 300+ disroders
Evaluation of tools-
- 3 main reasons for using the systems....1. Aids communication between professionals 2. Allows groups to be compared so the causes fo disorders can be researched 3. Helps provide best treatment.
- Reliability- Do all psychiatirists use the same systems and get the same diagnosis?? (Pedersen et al- 71% NOT 100!)
- Validity- Does the system allow for correct doagnosis??===> draw back to AS what did Rosenhan find? Type 1 errors until pointed out then type 2 errors.
- Usefullness- Gives us a base. What if we didn't have the systems? How would we diagnose?
Diagnosis- Rosenhan and Seligman
- Statistical infreqrency- 'abnormality' is used to refer to behvaiors that are not seen regulary in everyday activity e.g exceptionally high IQ.
- Deviation from social norms- if society does not see the behavior as normal then it is dysfunctional, suffers from ethnocentrism.
- Failure to function adequetly- behaviours that prevent an individual from living an independent life.
- Deviation from ideal mental health- idea of good mental health is subjective to cultures, i,e. Jahodas criterea is very western.
Diagnosis- Ford and Widiger
Sex bias in the diagnosis of disorders
Aim- to find out if practioners were sterotyping genders when diagosing disorders.
- Self report- health practioners were given scenarios and asked to make daignoses based on the information
- IV= Gender of patient