A2 PE - Sports Psychology Revision Cards

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Personality Theories

TRAIT  THEORY

  • Innate, stable and enduring
  • Describes we are born with certain personality characteristics
  • Trait theorists; Cattell (16 Personality Factors Test) & Eysenck

INTERACTIONIST THEORY

  • Mix of inherited traits and learned behaviours
  • Theorists; Hollander (Concentric Ring Theory)

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

  • All behaviour is learned from the environment
  • Theorists; Bandura (Observation and Imitation)
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Attitudes

TRIADIS' TRIADIC MODEL

Affective = Your feelings towards something

Behavioural = Your behaviour towards it

Cognitive = What you think/know about it

FORMATION OF ATTITUDES

  • Socialisation; interaction with others
  • Peer groups; significant others (friends/family)

COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY

  • Festinger;
  • Individuals experience emotional discomfort (dissonance)
  • If one attitude component (A, B or C) can be changed and cause dissonance, then the whole attitude can be changed

PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION THEORY

  • Persuader
  • Message All of these are used to cause dissonance and therefore a change in attitude
  • Situation
  • Recipient
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Attribution Theory

ATTRIBUTIONS

  • Reasons for players and coaches give for success and failure in sport

WEINER'S ATTRIBUTION MODEL

  • 4 attributions; 
  • Ability -  "We were more skillful"
  • Task Difficulty - "The opposition are champions"
  • Effort - "We tried hard"
  • Luck - "The court/surface was slippery"

ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING 

  • Attributing failure to effort instead of ability will help prevent 'learned helplessness'
  • Low achievers need to change to the attitudes of high achievers
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Team Cohesion

TASK COHESION

  • The way team members work together in order to successfully complete a task or reach a goal. (vital in team sports)

SOCIAL COHESION

  • Making positive social relationships within a team or group
  • This will provide supports and friendship
  • Important in co-active activities such as yoga or a fitness class

THE FOUR FACTORS THAT AFFECT TEAM COHESION

  • SITUATIONAL FACTORS - Specific to the situation and environment 
  • INDIVIDUAL FACTORS - Characteristics and personalities of the individuals
  • LEADERSHIP FACTORS - Styled of leadership preferred by the group 
  • TEAM FACTORS - Team goals, communication and record of shared success


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Leadership

LEADERSHIP STYLES

  • AUTOCRATIC - One leader, makes all decisions
  • DEMOCRATIC - Opinions of the group taken on board but leader makes final decision
  • LAISSEZ-FAIRE - Laid back approach, let the group make decision

SELECTION OF A LEADER

  • EMERGENT LEADERS - Already belongs to the group, has worked through ranks
  • PRESCRIBED LEADERS - Selected from outside of the group (external appointment)

LEADERSHIP THEORIES

  • TRAIT THEORY - Born leader, have leadership characteristics eg. good communication
  • SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY - Learnt leadership qualities through imitation/environment, states anyone can learn to lead, the more experience the better leadership qualities
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Aggression

  • Hostile aggression = aggression used outside of the rules with an intent to harm
  • Channelled aggression = aggression within the rules, aimed towards winning

REASONS FOR AGGRESSION

  • Crowd/Media, Pressure, Retaliation, Mentality, Rivalry, Importance of competition

INSTINCT THEORY (FREUD + LORENZ)

  • Aggression is a trait and iz genetically inherited
  • A small amount lies in everyone (some more than others)
  • Freud called this the 'Death Instict'

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY (BANDURA)

  • NOT genetically inherited but learned and nurtured through environment
  • Aggression can be learned through the imitation of role models


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Aggression (2)

FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS (DOLLARD)

  • Frustration develops when a goal-directed behaviour is blocked
  • Frustration may also occur due to; defeat, good opposition or percieved bad officiating
  • If an aggressive act is then completed, this frustration is released and the aggressor feels good

AGGRESSION CUE HYPOTHESIS (BERKOWITZ)

  • Frustration leads to an arousal increase
  • Frustration causes a 'readiness' which can trigger aggression after a cue in the environment eg- percieved unfairness, opposition players or nature of the game

ELIMINATION OF AGGRESSION

  • COGNITIVE -  Psychological therapies eg- CBT
  • SOMATIC - Physiological strategies eg- control of breathing rate, control of heart rate, biofeedback - uses electronic instruments to measure physiological stress
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Goal Setting - SMARTER

S - Specific M - Measurable A - Accepted R - Realistic T - Timed E - Exciting R - Recorded

TYPES OF GOALS

  • Short Term - Immediate Goals that bring immediate success
  • Medium Term - Used to check progress, inbetween cycle
  • Long Term - Ultimate goal, can be a matter of years or seasons

Activity Based Goals

  • Performance Goals: Based on judgements made of performer against previous performances
  • Process Goals: Looks at improving technique to improve performace
  • Product Goals: Focused on end result
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Self Confidence and Self Efficacy

SELF CONFIDENCE

  • Believing in your own ability
  • Linked closely to anxiety and stress

SELF EFFICACY

  • Specific to the situation
  • Perception of your own performance

BANDURA'S MODEL - EFFICACY EXPECTATION

1. Vicarious experiences - seeing someone of a similar level perform a skill the individual is struggling with

2. Verbal persuasion - motivation from coaches or other players

3. Control of Arousal

4. Performance Accomplishments - Looking back on previous good performances/accomplishments

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Vealey's Model of Sports Confidence

Objective Situation

Trait Confidence (SC Trait) Competition Orientation

State Sports Confidence

(SC - State)

   Performance of Skill

                                                  SUBJECTIVE OUTCOME

(Perception of Performance)

STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE SC-STATE

Mastery of Skill, Styling, Physical and mental preparation, Social Reinforcement, Effective Leadership, Environmental comfort

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The Effects of an Audience

SOCIAL FACILITATION

  • Having a positive effect on performance 

Zajonc's Drive Theory

  • The presence of an audience in any shape or form raised arousal
  • this increases drive
  • An increase in drive/arousal enhances the production of dominant responses

SOCIAL INHIBITION

  • Having a negative effect on performer

Cottrell's Evaluation Apprehension Theory

  • He understood that in some cases, the audience can have a calming effect
  • However, he stated that arousal only increased when the performer percieved the audience to be assessing/evaluating their performance
  • This can mainly inhibit performance but can facilitate in some cases
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The Effects of an Audience (2)

HOME ADVANTAGE EFFECT

  • Large, supportive crowds have a positive influence on performance
  • Larger crowd = Bigger influence

PROXIMITY EFFECT

  • Is when the crowd gets close to the action
  • This increases crowd influence
  • Most evident in indoor sports such as basket ball (known as the arena experience)
  • Can either facilitate or inhibit performance - depends on personality, experiences and phase of learning

DISTRACTION CONFLICT THEORY

  • Individuals can only attend to a limited amount of environmental cues
  • Spectators demand just as much attention from the activity itself and therefore the crowd act as a distraction
  • Simple actions would be performed better than complex actions
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Emotional Control

  • Anxiety, Arousal, Stress, Worry
  • Stress = trigger for increase in arousal
  • Types of anxiety = Cognitive - mind and Somatic - body

STABILITY OF ANXIETY

  • State = anxiety of specific situation (unstable)
  • Trait = natural/genetic level of anxiety (stable)

INDIVIDUAL ZONE OF OPTIMAL FUNCTIONING

  • Inverted U Theory - Correct but not individualist (applicable to everyone)
  • Adam's theory - Three zones of optimal functioning (arousal)

CONTROL OF ANXIETY

  • SOMATIC - Biofeedback, PMR (Progressive Muscle Relaxation)
  • COGNITIVE - Positive self talk, Imagery, Thought blocking, Goal setting
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Comments

Rob Bingham

Good resource however Vealeys Model is hard to understand and there are a few grammar and spelling mistakes. Other than that it is helpful :)

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