A2 PE - Module 4 - Physical and Psychological Factors Optimising Performance

Card set designed to help people revise module 4 of A2 PE. This set is designed to teach the Personality topic.

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Define Personality

Define 'Personality' :

  • "Personality is the more or less stable and enduring organizations of a person's character, temperament, intellect and physique, which determines the unique adjustment the individual makes to the environment." (Eyesenck-1995).
  • "Personality is the sum total of an individual's characteristics which make him unique." (Hollander-1971).

Hollander's definition is easier to remember (and just as good), however both focus on a key factor: personality is unique to the individual. Make sure you learn them.

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Structure Of Personality

What are the three inter-related levels of Personality? (Hollander)

  • Psychological core - Inner core; 'the real you' ; beliefs/values/attitudes/self-worth - ALL tend to be resistant to change.
  • Typical Responses - Usual response (often learned); good indicator of psychological core.
  • Role-Related Behaviour - Changes accordng to perception of environment; Most changeable part of our personality - it alters to suit the situation.

MAKE SURE YOU CAN DRAW THE STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY DIAGRAM, IT WILL HELP.

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Definiton of Trait/ Trait Theory

Define 'Trait':

Traits are innate, enduring characteristics possessed by an individual that can be used to explain and predict behaviour in different situations.

What is 'Trait Theory'?

Trait Theory states that: Traits are inherited and will not alter with time; we react in a similar fashion, regardless of the situation. Disadvantages of trait theories in predicting personality type are:

  • Personal experiences may show behaviouralpatterns changing in different situations.
  • At elite level, there are no common traits, as performers display a wide range of personality types.
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Eyesenck's Personality Dimensions

What are Eyesenck's Personality Dimensions?

  • Extrovert/Introvert Dimesnsion - An individual will try to keep a certain level of arousal suited to them. Extroverts require more arousal/stimulation to maintain optimum attention levels. Introverts require less arousal/stimulation and extra excitement will cause over-arousal.
  • Stable/Neurotic Dimension - based on emotionality/ Autonomic Nervous System to stressful situations. Stable people have a slow response to stress. Neurotic people react quickly, and are not suited to high pressure environments.
  • A third dimesion was added, called Psychoticism-Intelligence. This was to show how 'tough-minded' a person could be.
  1. Characteristics of an Extrovert are : sociable, outgoing, talkative, active, optimistic.
  2. Characteristics of an Introvert are : quiet, passive, unsociable, reserved, careful.
  3. Characteristics of a Stable individual are: calm, even-tempered, reliable, controlled, logical.
  4. Characteristics of a Neurotic individual are: moody, anxious, touchy, restless, aggressive.

MAKE SURE YOU CAN DRAW EYESENCK'S CIRCULAR DIAGRAM.

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Other Measure of Personality - Cattells 16PF and C

Name the other important measure of personality using stable traits.

  • Cattell's 16PF Questionnaire; based on stable traits (like Eyesenck), but more sophisticated.
  • Personality was given 16 categories; Cattell admitted test responses would differ due to motivation, mood and situational factors.

Eyesenck and Cattell trait theories were critcised:

  • too simplistic
  • do not account for personality changing over time
  • don't fully account for the environment and situational factors
  • fail to allow for individual's actively shaping/understanding own personality
  • not accurate predictior of sport preference
  • limited value as a predictor of sporting success.
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Interactionist Theory

What is Interactionist Theory?

  • Mixture of inherited traits/current situation.
  • More dynamic/valid.
  • Account for why behaviour changes in different situations.
  • Combination of trait theory and social learning theory.
  • Eqation for this approach: B = f (PE)
  • B = Behavior, f = function, P = Personality, E = Environment.

If situational factors are strong, like a highly competitive match with high extrinsic reward for success, these factors may affect behaviour more than personality. If it is the opposite, like a recreational game, personality is more likely to be the dominant factor and control behaviour.

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Measuring Personality

How Can I Measure Personality?

  • Self-report Questionnaires - EPI, Cattells 16PF and AMI (Athletic Motivation Inventory) widely used.
  • They are easy to administer/data collection is straightforward.

Despite this, there are multiple criticisms:

  • Validity- there is no agreed definition for personality.
  • Reliability - results may vary when test is repeated.
  • Mood/Situation/Attitude affect response.
  • 'Lies' are given by participants to sound more socially acceptable.
  • Questions are too ambiguous/may be interpreted differently.
  • Response options e.g. yes or no may be too limiting.
  • The ethical values of such tests have been questionned.
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Profile Of Mood States (POMS)

Outilne Profile Of Mood States (POMS).

  • Mood states are temporary and change with the situation.
  • Better predictor of performance/behaviour.
  • Measures: Tension, Depression, Anger, Vigour, Fatigue, Confusion.
  • Vigour needs to be high for a successful performer; other mood states must be low. This known as the Iceberg Profile.
  • However, it's been proven the Iceberg Profile is not required to reach elite level.

MAKE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND THE TERM 'ICEBERG PROFILE'.

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Key Factors Emerging From Personality Topic

What Key Factors Have Emerged From This Topic?

  • No clear link between personality type/success in sport.
  • No clear link between personality type/choice of sport.
  • Personality can be affected by the situation and environment.
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Revision Tips

  • TRY TEACHING THIS TO A PEER TO SEE IF YOU UNDERSTAND WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT.
  • PUT TOGETHER A SMALL POWERPOINT PRESENTATION AND TEACH IT TO A FRIEND.
  • TRY AND APPLY THIS KNOWLEDGE TO YOUR EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES E.G. IF YOU ARE IN A GYM ON A PUNCH BAG, WHAT SORT OF PERSONALITY TYPE WOULD YOU HAVE? WHAT THEORIES WOULD YOU APPLY TO YOUR SITUATION? ETC
  • OLD PRIMARY SCHOOL TIP - READ, COVER, WRITE, LOOK. READ WHAT YOU WANT, COVER IT, TRY TO WRITE IT DOWN, AND LOOK AFTER TO SEE WHAT YOU NEED TO WORK ON.
  • MAKE SURE YOU CAN DRAW ALL THE DIAGRAMS ASSOCIATED WITH PERSONALITY. MOST CAN BE FOUND IN TEXTBOOKS OR VIA A GOOGLE SEARCH. EQUATIONS ARE IMPORTANT TOO!

HOPE THESE CARDS ARE A HELP FOR THE PERSONALITY TOPIC.

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Comments

David Jones

Well these are a set of revision cards for personality. I really hope they are of use to people.

Any feedback on how I can make anything more user friendly, please let me know, my email is [email protected] .

I will be creating more sets of revision cards, but I will focus on the harder topics of energy systems and biomechanics, as I have a good understanding of these hard topics.

Hope these are a help!

Dave

Jake Loomes

very useful!

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