Define 'Personality' :
- "Personality is the more or less stable and enduring organizations of a person's character, temperament, intellect and physique, which determines the unique adjustment the individual makes to the environment." (Eyesenck-1995).
- "Personality is the sum total of an individual's characteristics which make him unique." (Hollander-1971).
Hollander's definition is easier to remember (and just as good), however both focus on a key factor: personality is unique to the individual. Make sure you learn them.
Structure Of Personality
What are the three inter-related levels of Personality? (Hollander)
- Psychological core - Inner core; 'the real you' ; beliefs/values/attitudes/self-worth - ALL tend to be resistant to change.
- Typical Responses - Usual response (often learned); good indicator of psychological core.
- Role-Related Behaviour - Changes accordng to perception of environment; Most changeable part of our personality - it alters to suit the situation.
MAKE SURE YOU CAN DRAW THE STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY DIAGRAM, IT WILL HELP.
Definiton of Trait/ Trait Theory
Traits are innate, enduring characteristics possessed by an individual that can be used to explain and predict behaviour in different situations.
What is 'Trait Theory'?
Trait Theory states that: Traits are inherited and will not alter with time; we react in a similar fashion, regardless of the situation. Disadvantages of trait theories in predicting personality type are:
- Personal experiences may show behaviouralpatterns changing in different situations.
- At elite level, there are no common traits, as performers display a wide range of personality types.
Eyesenck's Personality Dimensions
What are Eyesenck's Personality Dimensions?
- Extrovert/Introvert Dimesnsion - An individual will try to keep a certain level of arousal suited to them. Extroverts require more arousal/stimulation to maintain optimum attention levels. Introverts require less arousal/stimulation and extra excitement will cause over-arousal.
- Stable/Neurotic Dimension - based on emotionality/ Autonomic Nervous System to stressful situations. Stable people have a slow response to stress. Neurotic people react quickly, and are not suited to high pressure environments.
- A third dimesion was added, called Psychoticism-Intelligence. This was to show how 'tough-minded' a person could be.
- Characteristics of an Extrovert are : sociable, outgoing, talkative, active, optimistic.
- Characteristics of an Introvert are : quiet, passive, unsociable, reserved, careful.
- Characteristics of a Stable individual are: calm, even-tempered, reliable, controlled, logical.
- Characteristics of a Neurotic individual are: moody, anxious, touchy, restless, aggressive.
MAKE SURE YOU CAN DRAW EYESENCK'S CIRCULAR DIAGRAM.
Other Measure of Personality - Cattells 16PF and C
Name the other important measure of personality using stable traits.
- Cattell's 16PF Questionnaire; based on stable traits (like Eyesenck), but more sophisticated.
- Personality was given 16 categories; Cattell admitted test responses would differ due to motivation, mood and situational factors.
Eyesenck and Cattell trait theories were critcised:
- too simplistic
- do not account for personality changing over time
- don't fully account for the environment and situational factors
- fail to allow for individual's actively shaping/understanding own personality
- not accurate predictior of sport preference
- limited value as a predictor of sporting success.
What is Interactionist Theory?
- Mixture of inherited traits/current situation.
- More dynamic/valid.
- Account for why behaviour changes in different situations.
- Combination of trait theory and social learning theory.
- Eqation for this approach: B = f (PE)
- B = Behavior, f = function, P = Personality, E = Environment.
If situational factors are strong, like a highly competitive match with high extrinsic reward for success, these factors may affect behaviour more than personality. If it is the opposite, like a recreational game, personality is more likely to be the dominant factor and control behaviour.
How Can I Measure Personality?
- Self-report Questionnaires - EPI, Cattells 16PF and AMI (Athletic Motivation Inventory) widely used.
- They are easy to administer/data collection is straightforward.
Despite this, there are multiple criticisms:
- Validity- there is no agreed definition for personality.
- Reliability - results may vary when test is repeated.
- Mood/Situation/Attitude affect response.
- 'Lies' are given by participants to sound more socially acceptable.
- Questions are too ambiguous/may be interpreted differently.
- Response options e.g. yes or no may be too limiting.
- The ethical values of such tests have been questionned.
Profile Of Mood States (POMS)
Outilne Profile Of Mood States (POMS).
- Mood states are temporary and change with the situation.
- Better predictor of performance/behaviour.
- Measures: Tension, Depression, Anger, Vigour, Fatigue, Confusion.
- Vigour needs to be high for a successful performer; other mood states must be low. This known as the Iceberg Profile.
- However, it's been proven the Iceberg Profile is not required to reach elite level.
MAKE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND THE TERM 'ICEBERG PROFILE'.
Key Factors Emerging From Personality Topic
What Key Factors Have Emerged From This Topic?
- No clear link between personality type/success in sport.
- No clear link between personality type/choice of sport.
- Personality can be affected by the situation and environment.
- TRY TEACHING THIS TO A PEER TO SEE IF YOU UNDERSTAND WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT.
- PUT TOGETHER A SMALL POWERPOINT PRESENTATION AND TEACH IT TO A FRIEND.
- TRY AND APPLY THIS KNOWLEDGE TO YOUR EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES E.G. IF YOU ARE IN A GYM ON A PUNCH BAG, WHAT SORT OF PERSONALITY TYPE WOULD YOU HAVE? WHAT THEORIES WOULD YOU APPLY TO YOUR SITUATION? ETC
- OLD PRIMARY SCHOOL TIP - READ, COVER, WRITE, LOOK. READ WHAT YOU WANT, COVER IT, TRY TO WRITE IT DOWN, AND LOOK AFTER TO SEE WHAT YOU NEED TO WORK ON.
- MAKE SURE YOU CAN DRAW ALL THE DIAGRAMS ASSOCIATED WITH PERSONALITY. MOST CAN BE FOUND IN TEXTBOOKS OR VIA A GOOGLE SEARCH. EQUATIONS ARE IMPORTANT TOO!
HOPE THESE CARDS ARE A HELP FOR THE PERSONALITY TOPIC.