David Gauntlett, Making is Connecting (2011)
I mean this in three principal ways:
· Making is connecting because you have to connect things together (materials, ideas, or both) to make something new;
· Making is connecting because acts of creativity usually involve, at some point, a social dimension and connect us with other people;
· And making is connecting because through making things and sharing them in theworld, we increase our engagement and connection with our social and physical environments.
‘In a world of satellite communications and fibre optics, real-time journalism is routine; but now we journalists had added the expertise of the audience.’
‘[…] technology has given us a communications toolkit that allows anyone to become a journalist at little cost and, in theory, with global reach. Nothing like this has ever been remotely possible before.’
‘The communication network itself will be a medium for everyone’s voice, not just the few who can afford to buy multimillion-dollar printing presses, launch satellites, or win the government’s permission to squat on the public’s airwaves.’
- Government still restricts even though there is a Media:Democracy
- Reporters are having to fight more (competition)
- Anyone can be a journalist
- Cheap access to blogs etc
Uses and Gratifications
People who watch but also have opinions - they can be critical
make money for institutions by paying for media products
Audience are now considered active rather than passive with emergence of 'We Media'
Audience that produce and consume media (prosumer)
Access We Media aswell - the voice of the institution is no less prevalent
Aim to put foward their ideologies
Generally considered powerful
We Media creates choice
Being able to evaluate theories and understanding them but also coming up with their own theories.
Ferdinand de Saussure
Rules of Language
sign = signifier + signified
'Language is a system that represents things'
For Saussure, signs constructed the world because they describe somethnig that is not realllyyy there - something that is conceptual.
'Language is social'
Key thinker in semiotics and coined the idea of signs having a second order or "connotations"
signifier --> signified --> second order/connotation
bottle of wine --> afermented, alcoholic beverge --> of healthy, robust
Text can have more than one meaning
Signs not fixed or determine by the sender
Can mean a number og things
Hypordemic Needle model - propraganda mass manipulation
Two step flow theory
'We must get away from the habit of thinking in terms of what the media do to people and substitute it for what people do with the media'
Blumer and Katz (1974)
Uses and Gratifications
The media provides resolutions to users needs
Melvin De Fleur & Sandra Ball-Rokeach
The Dependancy Theory (1976)
Claims people come to rely on media to make every decissions
Suggests audiences are active
Radings of the reception of message and ideology
The audience is active in creating/deciding on meaning
Second layer of signification
The death of the author (1977) 'Author is not were you get meaning'
Texy is meaning not being in its origin (the author) but its destination (the reader)
'The birth of the reader must be at the cost of the death of the author'
Star theory and role models
Tordov - Narrative Shape
Roland Barthes - Codes of Narrative
- Narrative were like woven texts made up of threads
- Each thread 'code of narrative'
--> Action Code --> Enigma --> Symbolic --> Semic --> Cultural
Claude Levi - Strauss
- Stories and their narratives reflect society's valuse through binary opposites
- A conflict between two qualities or terms
--> Love - Hate
--> Black -White
--> Man - Nature
Blumler and Katz - Uses and Gratifications
Character & Action = Narrative
Erving Goffman (came after propp)
- Deuteragonist (secondary character)
- The bit player (little character)
- The fool
Vladimir Propp - Character
- Villian - struggles against hero
- Donor - prepareshero
- Helper - helps in the quest
- Princess - the girl he wants
- Her father - the girls father/father figure
- Dispatcher - sends the hero fof
- Hero -saves things and marrie princess
A community in which everyone and anyone can participate and contribute