AS Geography - Going Global

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Need To Know

Need to know....

  • 1) Globalisation - What is globalisation and how is it changing peoples lives?
  • 2) Global Groupings - What are the main groupings of nations? What difference in levels of power and wealth exist?
  • 3) Global Networks - Why, as places and societies become more interconnected, do some places show extreme wealth and poverty?
  • 4) Roots - How does evidence from personal, local and national sources help us understand the pattern of population change in the UK?
  • 5) On the move - How is migration changing the face of the EU?
  • 6) World Cities - What is driving the 'new' urbanisation? What are its consequences?
  • 7) Global Challenges for the future - What are the social and environmental consequences of globalisation? Can these be managed for a better world?
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Disney

Disney

Involved in many global activities:

  • 230 TV Companies
  • 6 Film/tv production companies
  • 12 Publishing companies - 15 magazines and newspapers
  • 728 shops worldwide
  • 5 Record labels
  • 2 theatre production companies
  • 5 Theme parks/resorts and a cruise line
  • Sports franchises/teams
  • Multimedia
  • Property and human resource agencies
  • Produces good on Just In Time basis
  • Typical of the new economy
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Other Side of Disney

Other Side of Disney

  • Before it closed, workers in a Bangladesh textile factory were paid US$0.15 for every US$17.99 T-shirt
  • A Chinese toy supplier for Tokyo Disneyland closed in 2006 after a campaign against working conditions. 800 workers lost their jobs with no compensation after working 12-16 hour days

Disney and Cultural Globalisation

Some Disney films are targeted at specific markets:

  • Mulan - China entry
  • Hunchback of Notre Dame - re-brand Disneyland Paris
  • The Lion King - Africa
  • Aladdin - Middle East
  • Rescuers Down Under & Finding Nemo - Australia
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Globalisation

Globalisation

Definition
The process by which people, their cultures, money, goods and information can be transferred between countries with few or no barriers

Impacts

  • Global capitalism spread by large TNC's
  • Trillions of dollars exchanged electronically - payments, loans, shares, purchases and debt
  • Worldwide reduction in consumer prices
  • Companies influence people e.g. News International
  • Expansion of political organisations e.g. EU
  • Loss of national identity
  • Tariffs and quotas removed
  • Those people with skills in managament, finance and IT are most in demand
  • Migrant labour flowing to areas of higher wages e.g. Eastern Europeans to UK


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Getting Connected

Getting Connected

  • 1492 - Columbus landed in America and established European control

Early Economic Connections

  • European countries have become wealthy trading with former colonies - who supplied raw materials, food and labour
  • Impacts were considerable:
    • By 1560, Spain overthrew Aztec and Inca empires of Central and South America
    • In the Caribbean, profitable sugar cane plantations replaced subsistence grown crops for local people - Britain and France controlled most of it - using slaves from Africa
    • In Latin America, 7-8 million slaves were brought to Brazil alone between 1550-1850

Guatemala

  • In the 1980's, 75% of the cotton crop was exported and money used to buy things to help with next years crop.. If Guatemala had processed it before selling, it would have made a lot more, but trade agreements tied to exporting raw materials
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Global Differences

Global Differences

North - Developed Core

  • 25% of global population , 80% of global income
  • Life expectancy over 75 years, Most people well fed
  • High levels of education, 90% of global manafacturing output
  • 95% of global spending on R&D
  • 99% of global ownership of patents
  • Controls global finance and trade

South - Developing Periphery

  • 75% of global population, 20% of global income
  • Life expectancy of 65 +, 20% suffer from malnutrition/hunger
  • Less than 50% attend school, 10% of global manafacturing output
  • Limited spending on research and development, depedent on north for medical suppies
  • Dependent on loans and aid for development
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Measuring Development

Measuring Development

1) Economic Indicators

  • Gross National Product
  • Gross Domestic Product
  • PER CAPITA
  • Purchasing Power Parity

2) Human Development Indicators

  • Physical Quality of Life Index
  • HDI - Human Development Index
  • Human Suffering Index
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Global Groupings

Global Groupings

  • World Trade Organisation
  • OECD -Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
  • OPEC - Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
  • G8, +5 - G8 = Russia, USA, UK, France, Canda, Germany, Italy and Japan. +5 = China, India, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa
  • G20
  • World Bank
  • IMF - International Monetary Fund
  • NAFTA - North American Free Trade Association
  • ASEAN - Association of South East Asian Nations
  • MERCOSUR
  • EU
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World on The Move

World on The Move

Impact on Host Nations

  • Attract the brightest and best foreign workers
  • Fill skills shortages
  • Attract lower - or intermediate skilled migrants where it proves difficult to fill job vacancies
  • Balance the UK's own ageing population

Impact on Source Nations

  • Remittances sent back - overseas women from The Phillipines sent US$12 billion back in 2006
  • Some migrant labour is low paid, low skilled and seasonal
  • Brain Drain - helps slow countries development
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Migration into Spain

Migration into Spain

Benefits

  • Nearly 65% of all immigrants to Spain are between 16 and 44, so most are capable of contributing to the Spanish economy
  • Many are from other EU countries and include skilled workers and business people, as well as retired people from the UK
  • Accepts migrants from Non EU countries to do the 3D's - dirty, difficult and dangerous jobs, such as farming and construction

Concerns

  • Some groups live in isolated enclaves with little social contact with locals
  • Increasing pop. density is putting strain on water resources
  • Reduction in amount fertile farmland near the coast - where land has been sold for building


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Megacities

Megacities

  • Urbanisation is the increase in the percentage of people living in towns and cities
  • Super City is a city with a population over 5 million
  • Mega City is a city with a population of over 10 million
  • World Cities are cities of power based on trade, political strength, innovation and communications
  • A Megalopolis is a very large urban area that contains several metropolitan centres
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Los Angeles

Los Angeles

Problems

  • Housing Shortages
  • Work - deindustrialisation causing job loss
  • Water - piped from 350km away
  • Waste - 24 million people - 50000 tonnes every day
  • Health and Education - many migrants cannot afford these services
  • Transport - 10 million vehicles - only 30% of people use public transport
  • Massive Energy Usage
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Los Angeles - PLAN

Los Angeles - PLAN

PROGRESSIVE LOS ANGELES NETWORK

  • Require employers to pay workers a decent wage
  • Provide community benefits such as childcare and affordable housing
  • Increase urban parks and clean up contaminated brownfield sites
  • Promote clean fuel vehicles and green energy
  • Require developers to build affordable housing in new developments
  • Attract food markets, farmers markets and community gardens
  • Improve public transport with 'clean' buses and new rapid bus lines
  • Universal low fare card that allows easy transfer between buses and trains
  • Promote safe, walkable and bikeable neighbourhoods
  • Promote smart growth land use where people can drive less and live nearer to where they work,shop, study or play
  • Ban new Big Box retail stores
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Mumbai

Mumbai

  • Provides 33% of India's tax revenue
  • 40% of international flights that land in India, land in Mumbai
  • Home to Bollywood - produces more films than Hollywood
  • Rent in most expensive parts is higher than New York or London
  • Hyper urbanisation is where the increase in urban population is happening so rapidly that the city cannot cope with the needs of the people
  • Mumbai is home to 17 million people
  • Estimated to receive 600 new migrants a day
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Vision Mumbai

Vision Mumbai

Based on 6 core targets :

  • Increase hosuing avaliability to reduce the number of people living in slums and make housing affordable
  • Raise adequate finance and reduce adiministrative expenditure
  • Improve transport infrastructure, providing more train carriages and buses ; increasing freeways and express ways and the amount of parking space
  • Make governance more efficient and responsive, e.g. reduce the time needed for building approval
  • Boost economic growth to 8-10% per annum
  • Upgrade other infrastructure (safety, environment, water, sanitation, education and healthcare)

Envisages creating:

  • 200,000 high end service sector jobs in financial, healthcare and entertainment sectors + 500,000 jobs in construction, retail and tourism, 200,000 new jobs in special export zones
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Globalisation - Cuba

Cuba

  • In 1980, there were 130,000 visitors and 5000 avaliable hotel rooms
  • In 2005, there were 2.4 million visitors, 256 hotels and 43,000 rooms
  • In 2005, China supplied 800 new coaches for tourist excursion and transfers
  • 50 hotels managed by 12 foreign companies with 19,000 rooms
  • In 1995-6, Spanish hotel chains invested US$75 million into Cuban tourism
  • In 1996, Canada's Wilton Properties agreed to spend $400 million to build 11 hotels in Cuba
  • The new airport is operated by AENA, a Spanish airport management company
  • In 2004, a new tourist currency was devised - the Cuban convertible peso - linked to the US dollar
  • 80,000 people work in tourism in Cuba
  • In 1990, 18 foreign airlines connected to Cuba
  • By 2005, 93 foreign airlines connected Cuba to 40 capital cities
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Managing Change For A Better World

Managing Change For A Better World

1) Fair Trade or Free Trade ? - Banana Wars - Carribean countries had a quota to sell to EU, Many went out of Business due to free trade agreements

2) Ethical Shopping - disadvantages - Production of goods can destroy more forests
                                                      Food miles are not all bad, less energy intensive to produce                                                       food in Africa and fly it in than in the UK 
                                                      Buying local produce can undermine fair trade

3) Carbon Offsetting and Trading - Voluntary or Certified e.g. Coldplay

4) Reduce, Re-use, Recycle - In London, enough rubbish to fill Canary Wharf in 10 days 


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Comments

Emma Nwofor

Omg I think your notes have saved my life!

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