User related Variation--> Age, Social Class, Gender, Profession( Factors about the speaker)
Use Related Variation ---> Topic, mode, tenor, ( Contextual factors)
Ellis -->RP sets a standard for foreign speakers. From 1800s-Outdated
Giles --> Matched guise experiment- RP = Prestigious& Intelligence. Regional accents= Socially attractive & More persuasive ( Call center)
Rural rated better than inner city and milder accents= pleasant
John Honey--> Children should be taught judgements made about them according the accent they use.
Precsriptivist --> ONE variety is correct and of a higher vaule
Descriptivist --> no one forms is of hihger status or vaule.
Labov--> Post vacalic /r/ in NYC. Posher store --> Used most 48% Supervisors, 18% Sales people and 0% Stock boys used it. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION!High status in NY-low status in Reading.
Trudgill & Anderson-->Rate accents on pleseantness - RP,Rurual,Urban.
Repeated in USA- RP, Cockney then random order. Negative views about the accent- Due to negative views about the area.
Mugglestone--> Regional accent = More persuasive
Sheridan --> One spelling = 1 Pronunciation. ' Unite nation in a voice'
Mugglestone --> RP not neutral - Elitism & Exclusiveness
Coggle --> Young privileged people make an effort not to talk RP - unacceptable in their peer group.
Spillane --> Accents add personality and character. Only change when undermines effectiveness
Barkham--> Project to preserve Norfolk accent in schools. Teachers see it as lazy (not a proper dialect)
Trudgill--> H-dropping lead to spelling incorrectly.Lots of silent letter in English. Changing accent won't improve English.
Trudgill-->Socail Stigma -Managers don't pay attention to accent. Making children change their accent=bad -alienate from friendship group.
Ryan -->Status Vs Solidatiy. RP= High status Low solidarity.
Chen --> S-Curve
Bailey--> Wave model, Spread socially and geographically.
DAMP SPOON --> Language change caused by lazyness and sloppyness.
CRUMBLING CASTLE --> English an old buliding, should be preserved- change destroys it.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE --> You catch language change-unavoidable
Crystall--> Language is like the tide, always changing, never progresses just ebbs & flows.
Mackinnon--> New language - useless/useful ect...
Truss--> Prescriptivist- zero tolerance approach to punctuation errors.
Heffer --> Should stick to the current grammar structure.
Humphrys--> Grammar rules don't confine they liberate.
Swift--> Should protect Language- Language out of control- so are the people.
Covert prestige = Language features which are considered low status to general society but high status in a particular group.
Overt prestige= Language features which are considered high status to everyone
Cheshire--> Boys in reading- Altered language depending on context.More standard in school. Apart from one - explained by ACCOMODATION THEORY - long period away - diverge from expected norms.
Coates--> Female speakers use more prestigious forms than males.
Downes--> Most standard in midlife-concerned with professional & social status. Non standard in adolescent & old age.
Bell--> Presenters language mirrored that of the audience. The person your talking to had the greatest effect on the language you use.
Coupland--> Female travel assistant adjusted her language according to customers- more friendly.
Over report--> Women over report their use of standard forms more than men.
Caxton-->Set standard from SE - First printed book
Mulcaster--> 1600s first to codify spelling.
Murray & Lowth --> Prescriptivist- Books in enforce rules.
Lexical gap theory --> Space in the 'morpholical room'for the language. Explains conversion . Noun to verb.
Random fluctuation--> Language changed due to unpredictable events- New words for new technologies- tweet.
Substratrum theory--> Languages changes off coming into contact with other forms of of language.
Functional theory--> Language changes due to the needs of the users.
Saprir-Wharf hypothesis--> Determinsim- Language controls the way we think. Reflectionism- Language reflects the way we think.
Closed socail network-->where all individuals personal contatcs all no each other - high density.
Open socail network-->Personal contacts don't no each other.-Low density.
Multiplex--> Individuals link in several ways.
Dense networks--> norm-enforcement mechanisms - closely knit groups- enforce linguistic norms.