A2 PE history

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  •  NATURAL SIMPLE- Lack of technology , purpose built facilities and money for the masses to use for sport.

• LOCAL- Limited transport and communication meant people couldn't travel to play activites.

• SIMPLE/UNWRITTEN RULES- Illiteracy was the norm so rules travelled by word of mouth, no NGBs Only played locally.

• CRUEL/VIOLENT-Reflected the harshness of 18 century rural life.

• OCCASIONAL- Free time for recreation on Holy Days and annual holidays eg Shrove Tuesday.

• COURTLY/POPULAR-Pre industrial Britain was predominantly a 2 class society based on the feudal system.

•RURAL- Before industrial revolution Britain was agricultural and rural.

• OCCUPATIONAL-Work often became the basis of sport for the lower class.

• WAGERING- Chance to go from rags to riches for the poor and to show off money

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  • REGIONAL/NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL- Improved transport meant teams could now travel further to games.
  • CODIFCATION/ADMINISTRATION-Business and administration skills from ex-public school boys.
  • REGULAR-Increased free time and improved transport. 
  • EXCLUSIVE/ELITIST-Social class lower class players and upper class managers.Gender discrimination , women were not allowed to take part in any sporting activities. 
  • URBAN/SUBURBAN-The revolutions 
  • CONTROL OF GAMBLING- Increased law and order decreased the amount of moeny gambled. Activites like bare knuckle fighting then became illegally wagered on. 
  • AMATEURISM/PROFESSIONALISM-Upper class would be gentlemen amateurs. Lower class would be professional and earn money for winning competitions/events. 
  • FAIR PLAY/RESPECTABLE- Ex public school boys / upperclass influenced how games were played. 
  • PURPOSE-BUILT FACILITIES- Technological advances allowed puropse built facilites to be constructed. 
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  • Middle ages 1200-1500
  • Towns were built on defensive sites eg around lakes or rivers 
  • Bathing for pleasure was common 
  • Rivers also provided food, transport and a place to wash. 
  • Rivers were the commercial centre it became a necessity to learn how to swim 
  • Einglish aristocracy considered swimming to be part of ther chivalaric coade 
  • Chivalaric code- the courteous , gallant and gentlemanly behaviour associated with the upper class.
  • Lower class- to wash themselves. 
  • Upper class- gentlemanly. 
  • Upper class sponsored lower class( wagering )
  • Good swimmers may become swimming masters in private schools. 
  • Charles II 1660 - 1685 first documented swimming contest.
  • 1784 the first open air swimming bath was built in London. 
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  • Folk sports associated with parish feasts 
  • Hiring fairs- laboures could be sacked at any moment and you would attend a hiring fair to seak employment.
  • Wakes organised from paganism 
  • Fear of superstition and evil was widespread. 
  • Wakes- Annual religious festivals or prayers.


  • Occupational.
  • Ancestors to modern olympics.
  • 17th century messengers would run all day.
  • They then began running races.
  • Athletic success= status.
  • popular.
  • Robert Barcley walked 1,000 miles in 1,000 hours.
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  • Great social occasions .
  • Associated with drinking and blood sports. 
  • Men proved their strength.
  • Stick fighting , wrestling and running.
  • More playful activities - catching pigs with soapy tails or whistling matches 
  • People were free to be athletic before the restraints of Victorian ethics. 
  • Reformed church frowned upon the activities 
  • Mid 19th century tea parties were set up 
  • Cotswold games Robert Dover 1604 
  • Survived until mid 19th century. 
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  • Salisbury Wiltshire 
  • 20 gineas won each day 
  • upper class wagering on fighters 
  • no bare knuckle fighting single stick had rules 
  • Held in a field 
  • In single stick you had to hit your opponient in the head to win 
  • Only took plave once a year
  • Structured rules were only just being intriduced into the wake
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  • Violent rowdy and cruel 
  • Occasional between neighbouring villages 
  • Little more than massive violent brawls 
  • Played on Shrove Tuesday and Ash Wednesday 
  • 2 rules...
  • No murder 
  • Bang the ball on the goal 3 times to win 
  • Still played today 
  • Played in Ashbourne 
  • Form fo stress release 
  • Lower class played 
  • No wagering 
  • Not occupational 
  • Upper class forwned upon it
  • Against christanity as it caused harm + injury 
  • Casued social unrest 
  • No set positions, pitch , referee, skill or regularity 
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  • Real tennis- exclusive elitist pre industrial game 
  • Needed facilities
  • Not natural or simple  
  • Originated in France 
  • Henry VIII built a court at Hampton Court Palace
  • He wagered on matches 
  • Gentleman amateurs played 
  • Upper class had the time and money to play 
  • Written rules 
  • Lower class not allowed to play so they played tennis against pub or church walls 
  • Racquets- originated in fleat prision and ended up being played by upper class gentlemen amateurs 
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  • Early 1700s 
  • Social classes played together
  • Gentry employed workers to play with them 
  • Freelance professionals were servants so they could play
  • 1727- first rules written 
  • 1744- More written rules
  • 1774- Size of wicket , stumps , bats and overs decided 
  • 1809- MCC introduced 
  • 1835- Round arm bowling legalised 
  • 1865- Over arm bowling legalised 
  • Originated in Bat a Ball Inn 
  • Pub in Hampshire ( Hambledon) 
  • 1750 
  • Team dominated cricket for 50 years
  • Crowds of 2,000 watched and wagered 
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  • MCC- Marylebone Cricket Club 
  • Forced decline of hambledon 
  • Gentry supported MCC and became NGBs 
  • Employed Hambledon players as coaches 
  • MCC toured the country which it continues to do today
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PRE INDUSTRIAL                                                       

  • Seasonal time                                                         
  • Limited communication 
  • Illiteracy 
  • Harsh rural lifestyle
  • Feudal system 
  • Agricultural 
  • Lack of policing 
  • Lack of technology 


  • Machine time 
  • Improved communication
  • Business + admin skills 
  • More civilised 
  • Middle class introduced 
  • Industrial 
  • Increased law and order 
  • Technological advances 
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  • Wealthy middle class- employed large work force 
  • Agricultural workers moved to the city 
  • Cities were not ready for the influx of people 
  • Living spaces were cramped , unhygienic 
  • malnutrition 
  • Cholera spread killing 31,000 
  • WC became factory slaves 
  • They lost acceptance of their traditional activities 
  • Decreased space,health and indpendance 
  • worked a 72hr week and a reduction in Saints Days
  • Popular Recreation- Feudal system 2 classes
  • Rational Recreation- 3 class system 
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  • Railways allowed more people to travel to participate 
  • This also increased spectatorism 


  • UC and MC were genleman amateurs 
  • Took part for love of the game and intrinsic awards 
  • WC played for money as professionals 


  • Inappropriate for women to participate in sport 
  • Overexertion thought to be medically harmful 
  • Invention of lawn tennis in 1870s allowed wome nto participate in sport 
  • Less facilities needed than real tennis 
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  • Class and gender affected participation 
  • MC emergence important 
  • MC had access to horses and bikes to travel 
  • WC had to wait for opportunities via factories or local authorities 
  • Lawn tennis was created by MC so they didnt have to travel to play real tennis 
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  • Still have decentralised amateur and voulentary ways of organising sport 
  • Result of formation of NGBs and clubs over 100 years ago 
  • Only recently has sport moved into professionalism 
  • Centralised formula adopted by GB cycling 
  • GB cycling only based in the manchester veladrome 
  • NGBs were formed to have control of a sport - Ex public school boys
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