CHARACTERISTICS OF POPULAR RECREATION:
- NATURAL SIMPLE- Lack of technology , purpose built facilities and money for the masses to use for sport.
• LOCAL- Limited transport and communication meant people couldn't travel to play activites.
• SIMPLE/UNWRITTEN RULES- Illiteracy was the norm so rules travelled by word of mouth, no NGBs Only played locally.
• CRUEL/VIOLENT-Reflected the harshness of 18 century rural life.
• OCCASIONAL- Free time for recreation on Holy Days and annual holidays eg Shrove Tuesday.
• COURTLY/POPULAR-Pre industrial Britain was predominantly a 2 class society based on the feudal system.
•RURAL- Before industrial revolution Britain was agricultural and rural.
• OCCUPATIONAL-Work often became the basis of sport for the lower class.
• WAGERING- Chance to go from rags to riches for the poor and to show off money
CHARACTERISTICS OF RATIONAL RECREATION:
- REGIONAL/NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL- Improved transport meant teams could now travel further to games.
- CODIFCATION/ADMINISTRATION-Business and administration skills from ex-public school boys.
- REGULAR-Increased free time and improved transport.
- EXCLUSIVE/ELITIST-Social class lower class players and upper class managers.Gender discrimination , women were not allowed to take part in any sporting activities.
- URBAN/SUBURBAN-The revolutions
- CONTROL OF GAMBLING- Increased law and order decreased the amount of moeny gambled. Activites like bare knuckle fighting then became illegally wagered on.
- AMATEURISM/PROFESSIONALISM-Upper class would be gentlemen amateurs. Lower class would be professional and earn money for winning competitions/events.
- FAIR PLAY/RESPECTABLE- Ex public school boys / upperclass influenced how games were played.
- PURPOSE-BUILT FACILITIES- Technological advances allowed puropse built facilites to be constructed.
BATHING + SWIMMING
- Middle ages 1200-1500
- Towns were built on defensive sites eg around lakes or rivers
- Bathing for pleasure was common
- Rivers also provided food, transport and a place to wash.
- Rivers were the commercial centre it became a necessity to learn how to swim
- Einglish aristocracy considered swimming to be part of ther chivalaric coade
- Chivalaric code- the courteous , gallant and gentlemanly behaviour associated with the upper class.
- Lower class- to wash themselves.
- Upper class- gentlemanly.
- Upper class sponsored lower class( wagering )
- Good swimmers may become swimming masters in private schools.
- Charles II 1660 - 1685 first documented swimming contest.
- 1784 the first open air swimming bath was built in London.
- Folk sports associated with parish feasts
- Hiring fairs- laboures could be sacked at any moment and you would attend a hiring fair to seak employment.
- Wakes organised from paganism
- Fear of superstition and evil was widespread.
- Wakes- Annual religious festivals or prayers.
- Ancestors to modern olympics.
- 17th century messengers would run all day.
- They then began running races.
- Athletic success= status.
- Robert Barcley walked 1,000 miles in 1,000 hours.
- Great social occasions .
- Associated with drinking and blood sports.
- Men proved their strength.
- Stick fighting , wrestling and running.
- More playful activities - catching pigs with soapy tails or whistling matches
- People were free to be athletic before the restraints of Victorian ethics.
- Reformed church frowned upon the activities
- Mid 19th century tea parties were set up
- Cotswold games Robert Dover 1604
- Survived until mid 19th century.
CASE STUDY-HUNGERFOLD REVELS
- Salisbury Wiltshire
- 20 gineas won each day
- upper class wagering on fighters
- no bare knuckle fighting single stick had rules
- Held in a field
- In single stick you had to hit your opponient in the head to win
- Only took plave once a year
- Structured rules were only just being intriduced into the wake
- Violent rowdy and cruel
- Occasional between neighbouring villages
- Little more than massive violent brawls
- Played on Shrove Tuesday and Ash Wednesday
- 2 rules...
- No murder
- Bang the ball on the goal 3 times to win
- Still played today
- Played in Ashbourne
- Form fo stress release
- Lower class played
- No wagering
- Not occupational
- Upper class forwned upon it
- Against christanity as it caused harm + injury
- Casued social unrest
- No set positions, pitch , referee, skill or regularity
- Real tennis- exclusive elitist pre industrial game
- Needed facilities
- Not natural or simple
- Originated in France
- Henry VIII built a court at Hampton Court Palace
- He wagered on matches
- Gentleman amateurs played
- Upper class had the time and money to play
- Written rules
- Lower class not allowed to play so they played tennis against pub or church walls
- Racquets- originated in fleat prision and ended up being played by upper class gentlemen amateurs
- Early 1700s
- Social classes played together
- Gentry employed workers to play with them
- Freelance professionals were servants so they could play
- 1727- first rules written
- 1744- More written rules
- 1774- Size of wicket , stumps , bats and overs decided
- 1809- MCC introduced
- 1835- Round arm bowling legalised
- 1865- Over arm bowling legalised
- Originated in Bat a Ball Inn
- Pub in Hampshire ( Hambledon)
- Team dominated cricket for 50 years
- Crowds of 2,000 watched and wagered
- MCC- Marylebone Cricket Club
- Forced decline of hambledon
- Gentry supported MCC and became NGBs
- Employed Hambledon players as coaches
- MCC toured the country which it continues to do today
POST INDUSTRIAL vs PRE INDUSTRIAL
- Seasonal time
- Limited communication
- Harsh rural lifestyle
- Feudal system
- Lack of policing
- Lack of technology
- Machine time
- Improved communication
- Business + admin skills
- More civilised
- Middle class introduced
- Increased law and order
- Technological advances
- Wealthy middle class- employed large work force
- Agricultural workers moved to the city
- Cities were not ready for the influx of people
- Living spaces were cramped , unhygienic
- Cholera spread killing 31,000
- WC became factory slaves
- They lost acceptance of their traditional activities
- Decreased space,health and indpendance
- worked a 72hr week and a reduction in Saints Days
- Popular Recreation- Feudal system 2 classes
- Rational Recreation- 3 class system
- Railways allowed more people to travel to participate
- This also increased spectatorism
AMATEURISM + PROFESSIONALISM
- UC and MC were genleman amateurs
- Took part for love of the game and intrinsic awards
- WC played for money as professionals
WOMEN IN VICTORIAN BRITAIN
- Inappropriate for women to participate in sport
- Overexertion thought to be medically harmful
- Invention of lawn tennis in 1870s allowed wome nto participate in sport
- Less facilities needed than real tennis
- Class and gender affected participation
- MC emergence important
- MC had access to horses and bikes to travel
- WC had to wait for opportunities via factories or local authorities
- Lawn tennis was created by MC so they didnt have to travel to play real tennis
IMPACTS ON LINKS TODAY
- Still have decentralised amateur and voulentary ways of organising sport
- Result of formation of NGBs and clubs over 100 years ago
- Only recently has sport moved into professionalism
- Centralised formula adopted by GB cycling
- GB cycling only based in the manchester veladrome
- NGBs were formed to have control of a sport - Ex public school boys