A2 ICT - Topic 4: Working with ICT

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  • Created by: Dan 8888
  • Created on: 29-02-16 10:39

Telecommuting / Teleworking


- Performing job-related tasks via telecommunications to send and receive data to and from a central office without having to be there

- You can also work at home and with telecommuting employees are given limited flexibility in working locations and hours

- Internet access, e-mail access, mobile computing, mobile phones, data warehouses, videoconferencing and high speed broadband links have all allowed people to work from home

Telecommuting and teleworking have a small difference but it doesn't need to be known as the two words will be used to signify the same thing

Hardware for teleworking -Computer, screen, Internet connection, microphone, webcam, internet phone and a printer

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Advantages of Teleworking for the Employee:

- No time wasted travelling / commuting and there are no expenses for travel

- You can live wherever you want and you can fit your work around family commitments

- Ideal for the disabled

Advantages of Teleworking to the Employer:

- Smaller offices are required and fewer backup staff need to be employed

- Reduced office overheads and less chance of staff spending time off sick

Disadvantages of Teleworking to the Employee:

- Costs at home instead such as electricity costs and you may feel isolated

- The boundary between home and work is lost and there may be distractions

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Disadvantages of Teleworking to Employers:

- It is hard to gauge how hard staff are working and it is harder for managers to manage the work

- Harder to hold meetings and there may be a bigger security risk

Advantages of Teleworking to Society:

- Reduced traffic congestion which means there is less air pollution

- Family relationships improve and prosperity is spread around the UK

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- Don't have to be in the same room and it can be used to share documents and presentations

Hardware -High specification multimedia PC, video cameras or webcams, microphones, screen, loudspeakers and sometimes the codec is hardware

Software -Sometimes the codec is software

Data communications -Connection to a high speed digital network

Advantages of using videoconferencing:

Advantages to the employee - Less stress, improved family life and don't have to travel for long hours

Advantages to the organisation - Cheaper, improved productivity of employees, meetings can be called at short notice and short meetings can be carried out

Advantages to society - Reduction in the amount of carbon dioxide, therefore reducing global warming, less congestion

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Disadvantages of videoconferencing

- Cost of equipment is expensive, poor image and sound quality, people can feel self-conscious and may fail to come across well, actual product cannot be passed around and discussions may not be as good

Uses of videoconferencing - Can be used in education, medicine and business

Videoconferencing in hospitals - Used for providing a link between patient, doctor and interpreter, used for people who live in rural areas who cannot get to the hospital, used to train staff, etc.

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Codes of Conduct

What is a Code of Conduct?

- It is an agreement made by an employee to obey the rules of the organisation and work within specified guidelines as regards use of ICT and the Internet

What is the Point of having a Code of Conduct?

- Because otherwise the employees can do whatever they wish which can lead to serious problems within the organisation

- If the employees do not comply with the code of conduct they will be punished to the extent of being released

Potential problems - Viruses, misuse of equipment, spreading of offensive material, misuse of data for illicit purposes, inappropriate use of phones


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Employee Code of Conduct

- Rules are set up which inform employees of what they can and cannot do and it will also state the consequences if they fail to obey the code of conduct

A code of conduct contains:

Responsibilities - Each user should be responsible for the security and integrity of resources under their control, should act responsibly when using open access, should act responsibly by making sure that viruses do not appear and that they lock their computers when leaving their workstation, etc.

Respecting rights of others - All employees must respect each other and not abuse each other through e-mails etc.

Abiding by current legislation -DPA (1998), CMA (1990) and the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act (1988)

Complying with licensing agreements - You cannot do what you want with a piece of software, so therefore it is important that employess don't run more versions of software than the software license allows

Authorisation -If you do things without having authorised access then you will be breaking the code of conduct

Security policy -Could include non-disclosure of passwords, non-disclosure of company data to any 3rd party and guarding against abuses which disrupt or threaten the functioning of all systems

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Data access permissions - Employees shouldn't access data or files unless they are allowed to

Security -Rules can include: Not revealing passwords, personal use of e-mail, use of the Internet, data transfer

Penalties for Misuse

Informal warnings - Minor infringements of the policy could be unintentional and are dealt with informally by the user's line manager

Written warnings -Serious infringements need to be dealt with in a more formal way and these infringements can include things such as attempting to steal data or passwords and the repetition of minor infringements

Dismissal - Extremely serious infringements can result in an employee being dismissed (embarrasment to company or leading to company being prosecuted)

Prosecution - Police could be called if actions of the employee are illegal (theft of software or data, fraud, infringement of DPA, pornogrophy on the Internet, etc.)

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Difference between Legal and Moral Issues with Respect to Codes of Conduct

- A legal issue is serious and against the law whereas a moral issue is not illegal even though people would see it as wrong

Disinformation -This is false information to deceive and it can be both a legal and moral issue -> A computer contractor taking on a job when they are not an expert in the field, a systems analyst advising a client to buy a particular type of hardware as they will get a free holiday if the deal happens (MORAL ISSUES) -> Estate agent putting wrong information about a house on their website in contradiction of the Properties Act, salesperson selling software claiming software will do certain things which it cannot do at all and this is against the Trades Description Act (LEGAL ISSUES)

Privacy -As a moral issue -> Companies buying lists of information off each other so that they can call people to try and sell things and companies monitoring staff's use of e-mail or Internet  -> As a legal issue -> Selling personal details of people who have not given their permission and not notifying the Information Commissioner that the company is processing personal data

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Employment Patterns

Legal Issues - Organisations have a legal obligation to protect the employees against the risks of RSI, back ache and stress by using correct equipment such as proper lighting, adjustable chairs and wrist rests or correct working practices such as regular breaks

Moral Issues - Employees may feel as if they are being spied on, employers may take advantage of somebody's personal circumstances and part-time work (not given same privileges as full-time workers)

Equity -Rich countries can take advantage of latest ICT developments whereas the poorer ones cannot -> Population can be divided into information poor and information rich (richer can make the most of cheap loans, etc whereas poorer cannot)

Intellectual property rights - People who develop new software, etc. should be rewarded but it is wrong if this work is copied by other people

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