A1 (Sectors)

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The care sector

Health and social care is delivered by 4 sectors

  • public (statutory) - covered by law.
  • private (independent)
  • voluntary (independent)
  • informal (family and friends)
  • You have no right to receive care from the independent sectors.
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Mixed Economy of Care.

  • Combination of all four sectors.
  • Benefit - Greater flexibility / Greater Choice / Independence is promoted / Creates competition
  • Example - A GP (public) may arrange for a service user to move into a (Private) residential care home.
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Key Features of the public sector

  • Care delivered by state - entitled to everyone.
  • Paid for by taxes (part of your work payslip is transferred to paying for health services)
  • Everyone has an entitlement to care (EQUALITY ACT 2010)
  • Mainly free, but there are some charges for dental care, eye tests and prescriptions (unless exempt)
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Benefits of the public sector

  • Provide funding for service (don't have to pay)
  • Accountable to the public (Anyone can access)
  • Services are co-ordinated and therefore services are similar across UK (Doesn't differ in the way you are treated - MORE NORMALISATION LESS WAREHOUSING)
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Issues with public sector

  • Nanny state exists (no control as an individual)
  • Demand is very high (Many people will want to be treated at the same time so therefore not every practioner will be able to see all)
  • Can be very bureaucratic (Government makes decisions for all individuals)
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Acronyms for Sectors

  • VOLUNTARY                
  • INFORMAL                
  • PRIVATE
  • PUBLIC
  • MIXED ECONOMY OF CARE
  • INDEPENDENCE
  • CHOICE
  • EFFICIENT USE OF RESOURCES
  • STRAIN REDUCED ON STATE
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Acronyms for Public Sector

  • LAWS
  • ENTITLEMENT
  • TAXES
  • FREE
  • RESPOND QUICKLY
  • ACCOUNTABLE TO THE PUBLIC
  • NANNY STATE
  • COSTLY
  • EQUAL ACCESS
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Key Features of the voluntary sector

  • Part of the independent sector
  • Not funded through taxes.
  • Non profit organisation.
  • Relies on volunteers and donations
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Role of the voluntary sector

  • Part of the mixed economy of care.
  • Reduces the presssure on state.
  • Diverse.
  • Puts pressure on the government.
  • Efficient and flexible in meeting the changing needs of society.
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Issues with the voluntary sector

  • Under pressure
  • Effective if volunteers are available
  • Support provided is not specialist (may be worse rather than better for the service user)
  • Financially limited.
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Acronyms for Voluntary Sector

Volunteers and paid staff

Independent sector

Non-profit

Donations

Gaps are filled

Reduces pressure on state

Excellent at meeting local needs

Effective in lobbying.

Compete with private sector and other charities

Economical difficulties due to financial issues

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Key Features of the private sector

  • Part of the independent sector
  • Ran to make a profit.
  • Charges service users.
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Role of the private sector

  • Greater choice.
  • Mixed economy of care.
  • Quicker response time
  • Respond to demand quicker.
  • Shorter waiting times.
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Issues with private sector

  • Creates inequality.
  • Profit making.
  • More interested in money than patient.
  • Expensive - only a minority can afford.
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Acronyms for Private Sector

Profit

Independent sector

Charge service users/public sector

Respond quickly

Inequality

Choice

Expensive

Resources are better

Shorter waiting times (reduces public sector waiting time and burden)

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Key Features of the Informal Sector

  • Care is provided by family or friends (loved ones provide care - has a positive effect on service user)
  • They are unpaid.
  • Example - Parent giving medicine to a child
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Benefits of the informal sector

  • Fills the gaps in care (Every section of care is covered)
  • Care provider knows and cares for the individual (Knows the individual's strengths and weaknesses)
  • Can be available 24/7 (Service user knows that someone will always be there to care and look after them)
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Issues with the informal sector

  • Huge burden on carer (Not always able to provide care for service user - causes a negative effect on health)
  • Not qualified so they might make mistakes (Might make the situation worse)
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Acronyms for Informal Sector

FRIENDS OR FAMILY

UNPAID

GAPS

BURDEN ON CARER

AVAILABLE 24/7

NOT QUALIFIED

KNOW THE PERSON THAT THEY ARE CARING FOR

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