A Level Music

  • Created by: NimG
  • Created on: 31-03-17 10:13

Corelli- Tonality and Structure

Binary form. (A,B, both repeated)

A Section

D major- Tonic. 2 bar opening phrase then answered

Modulates to A- Dominant (Bar 9, hinted at bar 4)

B Section

Modulates through variety of keys, Circle 0f fifths:

Starts in A (V); D (I, bar 22); Bm (i, 26); Em (iv, 28); G (IV, 30), Em (31); A (32); D (33); G (34); D (36)

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Corelli- Instrumentation

Although a 'Trio Sonata' requires 4 performers:

Violin 1- 2 octaves and a semitone

Violin 2- 14th

Violone- Range of 2 octaves (same as modern cello)

Organ- Single manual pipe organ, no pedals. Plays continuo part

Frequent imitation, parts cross, ideas exchanged.

Violin 1 states material first, Violin 2 finishes whole sonata on top

Idiomatic writing, not too compex.

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Corelli- Texture

Typically contrapuntal. 3 part texture.

Opening section: fugal violin 1 states subject (monophony) violin 2 answers a 4th lower

Bar 5: Violins start an inverted version of the subject in parallel 3rds. Violone completes original subject (middle of bar 6)

Homophonic at cadence points

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Corelli- Harmony

Entirely functional and diatonic. Accidentals from related keys.

Mostly root and 1st inversion chords.

Dissonance through prepared suspensions and double suspensions. Usually resolve downwards by a step.

First beat of bar 39: violin 1 leaves dissonance unresolved with an upwards leap.

Frequent perfect cadences define phrase structure (bars 4, 10-11, 18-19)

Cycle of fifths and tonic pedal notes at ends of sections shows strongly functional harmony

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Corelli- Melody


Melodic intervention derived from opening 3 note motif, based on a rising 3rd.

Developed by:

  • Rising sequence with added passing notes (bar 1)
  • Further sequence of embellsihed version (bar 2)
  • Inverted (bar 5)
  • Falling 1 bar sequence in violone (bar 15-17)
  • Anacrusis added for entries from bar 32

Octave leaps occasionally break characteristic descending sequences.

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Corelli-Rhythm and Metre

Movement written in a gigue format (lively dance in compound time)

6/8 time signature , compound duple. 

Strong rhythmical character of the music enhanced by dotted crotchet beats phrasing (bar 1-2) and cadence points (2 and 4)

1st Violin syncopation (bars 26-27)

Hemiolas (bars 27 and 31) harmony changing on 1st, 3rd and 5th quavers of bar. 3/4 time feeling.

Quaver and semiquaver rhythms prevalant throughout. Occasional rhythms of longer duration occur in upper parts (e.g. bar 15)

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Mozart- Tonality and Structure

Sonata form 


Starts in Bb major (Tonic)- 1st Subject.

F major (V, 10-63)- Bridge, 2nd subject, Codetta.


Passes through various keys 

F; Fm (bar 71); C-Cm (iv, 75); Gm (i, 80); F.


Ends in tonic (bar 110)

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Mozart- Texture

Mostly MDH, Right hand has tune, Left hand harmony.

Mainly 2 parts. Occasional 3 parts (e.g. bar 4)

Some monophony 

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Some octave doubling

Broken chord accompaniment (alberti bass)- Development

3 part cadential (62-63 and  164-165)

Block chords (84-86)

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Mozart- Melody

Mostly balanced 2 bar phrases


Use of accented passing notes (bars 1,2); unaccented passing notes (bar 6); Echappee (bar 4); Appogiatura (bar 3);  Passing chromaticism (bar 4); syncopation (bar 5); Suspensions (bar 5); auxilliary note (bar 6).

Anacrusis at start and halfway through bar 93 for recapitulation

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Mozart- Rhythm and Metre

Common time

Regular use of anacrusis

Syncopation (bars 5, 9, 25, 29)

Motivic ideas, repeated and developed

Running semi-quavers (bar 6)

Sometimes scalic, arpeggio feel.

Semi quavers form sequential (bar 18)

Alberti bass (broken chord quavers)

Development: new rhythmic ideas e.g. dotted quavers (bar 77)

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Shostakovich- Texture

Starts contrapuntally, melody layered up, imitative

First 2 bars monophonic

Motif doubled in octaves (bar 11)

Sequential use of melody (bar 19-22)

Mostly homophonic

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Shostakovich- Tonality

All 12 semitones played in first 6 bars

(C, Db, Eb, E, F, F#,G, Ab, A, Bb, B) chromatic scale

Original DSCH has a C minor feel

Chromaticism creates strong ambiguity

B section: Drone sounds C minor but melody very chromatic

C major ish (bar 55)

A major (bar 100)

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Shostakovich- Instrumentation

2 violins, viola and cello

Ranges generally quite narrow

Restraint of techniques such as pizz, tremolo and double stopping. Everything arco

Dynamics mostly p

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Shostakovich- Structure

Opening imitative passage is an introduction

Arch form (A, B, C, B1, A1)

A section ends with first DSCH motif

B sections ends with DSCH motif in cello (bar 46)

C section ends with second homophonic statement of DSCH

B1 has more static or slow moving upper parts

A1 ends with final shift to G#

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Shostakovich- Harmony


Traditional functional harmony at the beginning

Clearly defined traditional progressions (bar 26) suspension

Less traditional chord progressions consist of G major, Eb minor and F major

Passages of harmonic static, no progression (bar 28) drone

Insistence on tonic and dominant notes of the C minor scale

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Shostakovich- Melody

Stepwise movement. Some scalic passages (bar 67-70) and some chromatic passages

Descending minor 3rd crucial to DSCH motif

Minor 2nds D-Eb and C-B natural

Whole melody spans diminished 4th

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Shostakovich- Rhythm and metre

Simple quadruple time (4/4)

Simple rhythms, syncopation uncommon except (bar 24-25) in violin 1 and (bar 120-121) in the viola.

Cello opening rhythm associated with DSCH motif

Rhythmic augmentation in 2nd homophonic statement of DSCH motif.

Minims doubled to semi-breves

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Cage- Structure

Micro-macrocosmic structure- based on maths, Crotchet multiples

Sonata I- based on 7 (macro structure) 4.1.3, 4.2 (micro structure)

Sonata II- based on 31 (macro) 1 & 1/2, 2 & 3/8 (micro)

Sonata III- based on 34 (macro) 1, 3 & 1/4 (micro)

Binary form within each sonata.

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Cage- Tonality and Harmony

Tonal relationships of scale and key are absent

Music doesn't contrast key

Repeated passages, phrases approach cadence points and pitched notes exist

No marking out of cadences by harmonic progression

Harmony written not necessarily sounding.

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Cage- Melody

Arch shaed melodies (Sonata I, Bar 15-16)

Limited number of pitches and conjunct movement

Decorative use of grace notes and rhyhmic embellishment

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Cage- Rhythm and Metre

Rhythms not referred back to

Patterns place unpredictably against metre and irregular groupings

Stresses displaced, Metre changes frequently

Irregular metres

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Berlioz- Instrumentation

Piccolo, Flute, Oboe, Cor Anglais, Bassoon (enhanced woodwind)

Four horns in differing keys, harp, full string section

Violas split in 2, solo viola

In this movement no trumpets, trombones or percussion

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Berlioz- Structure

ABA structure

A: Saltarello (traditional sheperd dance)

B: Allegretto (could have an ABA structure within)

A: Saltarello

Extended coda

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Berlioz- Tonality

Overall tonality of C, clearly defined cadences throughout

Tonality of Allegro assai defined by tonic pedal of C in bassoon

Serenade theme in C

Brief modulations to G major (dominant) at bar 89 and D minor (relative minor of subdominant) at bar 100

From bar 136 to the end remains in C major

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Berlioz- Harmony

Functional harmony with use of cadences.

Diatonic throughout, some chromatic inflections largely through diminished chords.

All inversions use including V7d (bar 78/9) moving to Ib

Drones in violas, clarinets and bassoons

Chromatic scales create harmonic stability

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Berlioz- Melody

Opening Saltarello based on folk like melody with a lot of conjunct movement

Serenade: Mainly based on arpeggios

Idee Fixe: Introduced by Viola (bar 65), Harold Theme

Coda: Idee fixe heard complete in C by flute and harp in long notes

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Berlioz- Rhythm and Metre

Compound duple (6/8)

Tempo of Allegro assai intro double that of Allegreto

Triplet semiquavers appear (bar 77)

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Rag- Instrumentation

Sarangi- Principal bowed string instrument. Plays melody.

Tampura- Plucked string instrument with 4 sometimes 5 strings. Plays a drone

Tabla- Hand drums consisting of two, one smaller, one larger. Enters on line 19

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Rag- Structure

Divides into two clear sections: Alap followed by Jhala

Alap (lines 1-13)-

Slow section the notes of the rag gradually revealed .

Sarangi plays in free time with paticular emphasis on important notes.

Accompaniment provided by a tampura drone

Brief Jhor (lines 14-18) strong sense of pulse presented

Jhala (lines 19-end)- entrance of tabla.

Sarangi improvises around rag.

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Rag- Texture

Opening of extract consists of melody  (played by sarangi) and drone (played by tempura) texture

Sarangi sometimes plays 2 note chords (opening notes of line 1)

Texture change (line 19) entry of tabla to provide the pulse. 

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Rag- Melody

Mostly scalic/ stepwise- leaps only glissando at start of phrases

No consistency in phrase length

Based on the notes of the Rag (Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa, Re)

Heavily virtuosic ending

Starts in middle register (line 9 climbs higher), (17-18 original tessitura)

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Rag-Rhythm and Metre

Opening alap has no metre. Rhytmically free combination of long and short notes, to emphasise important notes of Rag

As the piece develops , more elaborate rhythms appear

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Rag- Tonality and Harmony

Harmony only occurs in 2 respects: Double stopping of sarangi and drone of tampura interacts with melody.

Tonality never present in Western sense. Emphasis on paticular tones

Tabla tuned carefully by the player to ensure the notes produced matches Sa as chosen by Sarangi player

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Sweelinck- Texture

Mostly four parts, texture often similar to 4 part vocal writing

Melody from Dowland in top part, mostly homophonic

Bar 1-4 melody supported by bass in semibreves. Inner parts contrapuntal

Imitation (bars 42-45)

Variation of passage (bars 48-50) more genuinly imitative

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Sweelinck- Structure

3 sections, A,B,C each repeated in a variation (A, A2, B, B2, C, C2)

A- (bars 1-16). Ends with perfect cadence in A with Tierce de Picardie

A2- (bars 17-32) Perfect cadence, tierce de picardie

B- (bars 33-48) A minor imperfect cadence (Phrygian)

B2- (bars 49-64) A minor, imperfect, Phrygian

C- (bars 65-81) Perfect, closing in A, tierce de picardie

C2- (bars 82-98) Perfect, closing in A, tierce de picardie

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Sweelinck- Tonality

3 interpretations:

A minor- piece begins and ends in A, no key signature mostly minor.

A minor, some Modal (Aeplian) elements. G naturals frequent

G sharps chromatic alteration

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Sweelinck- Harmony

Most chords are 5/3s or 6/3s (triads in root position or first inversion)

Cadences are imperfect and perfect.

End of sections, final chord of a cadence extended over 2 bars and considerably embellished

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Sweelinck- Melody

Melodic writing frequently vocal in character, much stepwise writing.

Occasional leaps in melody

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Sweelinck- Rhythm and Metre

Metre simple quadruple.

Syncopation not very widespread

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