- Created by: NimG
- Created on: 31-03-17 10:13
Corelli- Tonality and Structure
Binary form. (A,B, both repeated)
D major- Tonic. 2 bar opening phrase then answered
Modulates to A- Dominant (Bar 9, hinted at bar 4)
Modulates through variety of keys, Circle 0f fifths:
Starts in A (V); D (I, bar 22); Bm (i, 26); Em (iv, 28); G (IV, 30), Em (31); A (32); D (33); G (34); D (36)
Although a 'Trio Sonata' requires 4 performers:
Violin 1- 2 octaves and a semitone
Violin 2- 14th
Violone- Range of 2 octaves (same as modern cello)
Organ- Single manual pipe organ, no pedals. Plays continuo part
Frequent imitation, parts cross, ideas exchanged.
Violin 1 states material first, Violin 2 finishes whole sonata on top
Idiomatic writing, not too compex.
Typically contrapuntal. 3 part texture.
Opening section: fugal violin 1 states subject (monophony) violin 2 answers a 4th lower
Bar 5: Violins start an inverted version of the subject in parallel 3rds. Violone completes original subject (middle of bar 6)
Homophonic at cadence points
Entirely functional and diatonic. Accidentals from related keys.
Mostly root and 1st inversion chords.
Dissonance through prepared suspensions and double suspensions. Usually resolve downwards by a step.
First beat of bar 39: violin 1 leaves dissonance unresolved with an upwards leap.
Frequent perfect cadences define phrase structure (bars 4, 10-11, 18-19)
Cycle of fifths and tonic pedal notes at ends of sections shows strongly functional harmony
Melodic intervention derived from opening 3 note motif, based on a rising 3rd.
- Rising sequence with added passing notes (bar 1)
- Further sequence of embellsihed version (bar 2)
- Inverted (bar 5)
- Falling 1 bar sequence in violone (bar 15-17)
- Anacrusis added for entries from bar 32
Octave leaps occasionally break characteristic descending sequences.
Corelli-Rhythm and Metre
Movement written in a gigue format (lively dance in compound time)
6/8 time signature , compound duple.
Strong rhythmical character of the music enhanced by dotted crotchet beats phrasing (bar 1-2) and cadence points (2 and 4)
1st Violin syncopation (bars 26-27)
Hemiolas (bars 27 and 31) harmony changing on 1st, 3rd and 5th quavers of bar. 3/4 time feeling.
Quaver and semiquaver rhythms prevalant throughout. Occasional rhythms of longer duration occur in upper parts (e.g. bar 15)
Mozart- Tonality and Structure
Starts in Bb major (Tonic)- 1st Subject.
F major (V, 10-63)- Bridge, 2nd subject, Codetta.
Passes through various keys
F; Fm (bar 71); C-Cm (iv, 75); Gm (i, 80); F.
Ends in tonic (bar 110)
Mostly MDH, Right hand has tune, Left hand harmony.
Mainly 2 parts. Occasional 3 parts (e.g. bar 4)
Some octave doubling
Broken chord accompaniment (alberti bass)- Development
3 part cadential (62-63 and 164-165)
Block chords (84-86)
Mostly balanced 2 bar phrases
Use of accented passing notes (bars 1,2); unaccented passing notes (bar 6); Echappee (bar 4); Appogiatura (bar 3); Passing chromaticism (bar 4); syncopation (bar 5); Suspensions (bar 5); auxilliary note (bar 6).
Anacrusis at start and halfway through bar 93 for recapitulation
Mozart- Rhythm and Metre
Regular use of anacrusis
Syncopation (bars 5, 9, 25, 29)
Motivic ideas, repeated and developed
Running semi-quavers (bar 6)
Sometimes scalic, arpeggio feel.
Semi quavers form sequential (bar 18)
Alberti bass (broken chord quavers)
Development: new rhythmic ideas e.g. dotted quavers (bar 77)
Starts contrapuntally, melody layered up, imitative
First 2 bars monophonic
Motif doubled in octaves (bar 11)
Sequential use of melody (bar 19-22)
All 12 semitones played in first 6 bars
(C, Db, Eb, E, F, F#,G, Ab, A, Bb, B) chromatic scale
Original DSCH has a C minor feel
Chromaticism creates strong ambiguity
B section: Drone sounds C minor but melody very chromatic
C major ish (bar 55)
A major (bar 100)
2 violins, viola and cello
Ranges generally quite narrow
Restraint of techniques such as pizz, tremolo and double stopping. Everything arco
Dynamics mostly p
Opening imitative passage is an introduction
Arch form (A, B, C, B1, A1)
A section ends with first DSCH motif
B sections ends with DSCH motif in cello (bar 46)
C section ends with second homophonic statement of DSCH
B1 has more static or slow moving upper parts
A1 ends with final shift to G#
Traditional functional harmony at the beginning
Clearly defined traditional progressions (bar 26) suspension
Less traditional chord progressions consist of G major, Eb minor and F major
Passages of harmonic static, no progression (bar 28) drone
Insistence on tonic and dominant notes of the C minor scale
Stepwise movement. Some scalic passages (bar 67-70) and some chromatic passages
Descending minor 3rd crucial to DSCH motif
Minor 2nds D-Eb and C-B natural
Whole melody spans diminished 4th
Shostakovich- Rhythm and metre
Simple quadruple time (4/4)
Simple rhythms, syncopation uncommon except (bar 24-25) in violin 1 and (bar 120-121) in the viola.
Cello opening rhythm associated with DSCH motif
Rhythmic augmentation in 2nd homophonic statement of DSCH motif.
Minims doubled to semi-breves
Micro-macrocosmic structure- based on maths, Crotchet multiples
Sonata I- based on 7 (macro structure) 4.1.3, 4.2 (micro structure)
Sonata II- based on 31 (macro) 1 & 1/2, 2 & 3/8 (micro)
Sonata III- based on 34 (macro) 1, 3 & 1/4 (micro)
Binary form within each sonata.
Cage- Tonality and Harmony
Tonal relationships of scale and key are absent
Music doesn't contrast key
Repeated passages, phrases approach cadence points and pitched notes exist
No marking out of cadences by harmonic progression
Harmony written not necessarily sounding.
Arch shaed melodies (Sonata I, Bar 15-16)
Limited number of pitches and conjunct movement
Decorative use of grace notes and rhyhmic embellishment
Cage- Rhythm and Metre
Rhythms not referred back to
Patterns place unpredictably against metre and irregular groupings
Stresses displaced, Metre changes frequently
Piccolo, Flute, Oboe, Cor Anglais, Bassoon (enhanced woodwind)
Four horns in differing keys, harp, full string section
Violas split in 2, solo viola
In this movement no trumpets, trombones or percussion
A: Saltarello (traditional sheperd dance)
B: Allegretto (could have an ABA structure within)
Overall tonality of C, clearly defined cadences throughout
Tonality of Allegro assai defined by tonic pedal of C in bassoon
Serenade theme in C
Brief modulations to G major (dominant) at bar 89 and D minor (relative minor of subdominant) at bar 100
From bar 136 to the end remains in C major
Functional harmony with use of cadences.
Diatonic throughout, some chromatic inflections largely through diminished chords.
All inversions use including V7d (bar 78/9) moving to Ib
Drones in violas, clarinets and bassoons
Chromatic scales create harmonic stability
Opening Saltarello based on folk like melody with a lot of conjunct movement
Serenade: Mainly based on arpeggios
Idee Fixe: Introduced by Viola (bar 65), Harold Theme
Coda: Idee fixe heard complete in C by flute and harp in long notes
Berlioz- Rhythm and Metre
Compound duple (6/8)
Tempo of Allegro assai intro double that of Allegreto
Triplet semiquavers appear (bar 77)
Sarangi- Principal bowed string instrument. Plays melody.
Tampura- Plucked string instrument with 4 sometimes 5 strings. Plays a drone
Tabla- Hand drums consisting of two, one smaller, one larger. Enters on line 19
Divides into two clear sections: Alap followed by Jhala
Alap (lines 1-13)-
Slow section the notes of the rag gradually revealed .
Sarangi plays in free time with paticular emphasis on important notes.
Accompaniment provided by a tampura drone
Brief Jhor (lines 14-18) strong sense of pulse presented
Jhala (lines 19-end)- entrance of tabla.
Sarangi improvises around rag.
Opening of extract consists of melody (played by sarangi) and drone (played by tempura) texture
Sarangi sometimes plays 2 note chords (opening notes of line 1)
Texture change (line 19) entry of tabla to provide the pulse.
Mostly scalic/ stepwise- leaps only glissando at start of phrases
No consistency in phrase length
Based on the notes of the Rag (Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa, Re)
Heavily virtuosic ending
Starts in middle register (line 9 climbs higher), (17-18 original tessitura)
Rag-Rhythm and Metre
Opening alap has no metre. Rhytmically free combination of long and short notes, to emphasise important notes of Rag
As the piece develops , more elaborate rhythms appear
Rag- Tonality and Harmony
Harmony only occurs in 2 respects: Double stopping of sarangi and drone of tampura interacts with melody.
Tonality never present in Western sense. Emphasis on paticular tones
Tabla tuned carefully by the player to ensure the notes produced matches Sa as chosen by Sarangi player
Mostly four parts, texture often similar to 4 part vocal writing
Melody from Dowland in top part, mostly homophonic
Bar 1-4 melody supported by bass in semibreves. Inner parts contrapuntal
Imitation (bars 42-45)
Variation of passage (bars 48-50) more genuinly imitative
3 sections, A,B,C each repeated in a variation (A, A2, B, B2, C, C2)
A- (bars 1-16). Ends with perfect cadence in A with Tierce de Picardie
A2- (bars 17-32) Perfect cadence, tierce de picardie
B- (bars 33-48) A minor imperfect cadence (Phrygian)
B2- (bars 49-64) A minor, imperfect, Phrygian
C- (bars 65-81) Perfect, closing in A, tierce de picardie
C2- (bars 82-98) Perfect, closing in A, tierce de picardie
A minor- piece begins and ends in A, no key signature mostly minor.
A minor, some Modal (Aeplian) elements. G naturals frequent
G sharps chromatic alteration
Most chords are 5/3s or 6/3s (triads in root position or first inversion)
Cadences are imperfect and perfect.
End of sections, final chord of a cadence extended over 2 bars and considerably embellished
Melodic writing frequently vocal in character, much stepwise writing.
Occasional leaps in melody
Sweelinck- Rhythm and Metre
Metre simple quadruple.
Syncopation not very widespread