Paragraph 1 - Summary
- Cannot prove God's existence is probable.
- God's existence is not an 'empirical hypothesis' (it cannot be empirically proven).
- Design in the world = God exists - doesn't work as it only shows there is design, and doesn't give actual evidence of God's existence.
- Metaphysical utterances cannot be true or false [Ayer's verification principle].
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Paragraph 2 - summary
- Concepts of atheism and agnosticism are equally meaningless.
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Paragraph 3 - summary
- Statements within primitive religions could be meaningful, i.e. it is thundering = Jehovah is angry.
- Sophisticated religions suggest there is a being outside the world with 'super-empirical attributes' - non-sensical.
- Existence of noun does not equal its reality.
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Paragraph 5 - summary
- Theists describe God as 'ineffable', 'mysterious'.
- Religious believers = faith and reason - if it is not intelligible to reason it's meaningless.
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Paragraph 6 - summary
- Intuition does not reveal any facts [Donovan/religious experience].
- Mystic is unable to express what he knows or say how it could be tested [psychologists].
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Paragraph 7- summary
- Theists suggest it is logically possible for men to be immediately acquainted with God much like we are immediately acquainted with a sense-content [Swinburne's principle of credulity/direct awareness].
- Yellow patch can be empirically proved as a sense-content compared to an experience of God.
- We cannot deny an experience of God but it has no validity because it cannot be checked.
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Paragraph 8 - summary
- Religious experience cannot be true because it cannot be empirically proved.
- Theist is deceiving himself by believing his experiences are cognitive, unless he can formulate his 'knowledge' into propositions that are empirically verifiable.
- Religious experience is interesting from a psychologist's point of view.
- Reduces knowledge to empirical evidence [logical positivists/Donovan].
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