- Cheap and easy to use, organism is unharmed
- Limited power/resolution
- Huge powers/resolution
- Expensive and particles may collide with organism causing damage
- Lack structure and organisation
NUCLEOID - Single strand DNA
CYTOPLASM - Enzymes, ribosome, food storage
MESOSOME - Respiration
Nucleus surrounded by double membrane, contains DNA, RNA and CHROMATINS - Proteins.
Folded inner membrane; CRISTAE. Ribosomes contained in MATRIX.
Cell division; produce spindle fibres.
Creates 3D structure, keeps organelle in place with MICROFILAMENTS.
Allow control of water content. Membrane made and lost.
SMOOTH ENDOPASMIC RETICULUM (SER)
Control synthesis and transport.
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (RER)
Isolate and transport proteins made. Contain ribosome on surface
Vesicles cluster around, CISTERNAE formed. Contain lysosome
LYSOSOME: Contains digestive enzymes. Extracellular.
- APOPTOSIS occurs if lysosome is damaged; releases enzyme which destroy the cell.
One or few types of cells that work together to form a function (muscles)
Various tissues grouped (heart)
Various organs grouped for a large scale function (digestive system)
Allows asexual reproduction for exponential growth.
All cells have the same amount of DNA.
No genetic variation.
- Chromosomes condence
- Nuclear envelope broken
- Nucleolus disappears
- Spindle forms
- Centrioles move to opposite poles
- Chromatids line up at the equator
- Attach to spindle fibres
- Fibres attach to centriomere
- Spindle fibres contract
- Fibres pull chromatids apart with centriomere leading
- Chromosomes condense
- Nuclear envelope forms
- Nucleolus reappears
- Two new nuclei
- Cytoplasm divides
- Two new identical daughter cells are formed
ROOT TIP SQUASH
Technique used to observe mitosis:
- 5mm of a root tip from a plant is cut
This is where mitosis occurs in the root
- Add stain (DCPIP)
Stain to highlight chromosomes, usually acid to soften the tissues
- Break open on a slide and squash carefully
Spread out the cells so the layer is only one cell thick for ease of viewing
- Add more stain and look at the slide under a microscope
Microscope used because cells and chromosomes are small