GLYCOLYSIS (FIRST STAGE OF AEROBIC RESPIRATION)
GLYCOLYSIS ( 4 stages)
STAGE 1 - ACTIVATION OF GLUCOSE BY PHOSPHORYLATION
- takes place in cytoplasm of cells
- begins with activation of main respiratory substrate (mainly hexose sugar - glucose)
- activation involves addition of 2 phosphate molecules provided by 2 molecules of ATP.
- the phosphate molecules come from HYDROLYSIS of 2 ATP molecules to ADP ------> this provides energy to activate glucose.
- the resultant activated molecule is known as PHOSPHORYLATED GLUCOSE
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2ND STAGE OF GLYCOLYSIS
STAGE 2 - SPLITTING OF THE PHOSPHORYLATED GLUCOSE
- the phosphorylated glucose is split into 2 molecules called TRIOSE PHOSPHATE.
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3RD STAGE OF GLYCOLYSIS.
STAGE 3 - OXIDATION OF TRIOSE PHOSPHATE
- hydrogen is removed from both of the triose phosphate molecules and transferred to a hydrogen - carrier molecule known as NAD.
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4TH STAGE OF GLYCOLYSIS
STAGE 4 - THE PRODUCTION OF ATP
- enzyme controlled reactions convert each triose phosphate molecule into 2, 3-carbon molecules called PYRUVATE.
- in the process, 2 molecules of ATP are regenerated from ADP.
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