LIVERY STABLE BLUES- 1910, Original Dixieland Jazz
4 bar intro
Tune A- trumpet main melody, clarinet countermelody (repeated)
Tune B-trumpet drained out by clarinet, drum crashes (repeated)
Improv fill in, gliss on cornet leads to...
Tune C- animal noises; clarinet=cockrel, cornet=horse, trombone=cow (repeated)
Tune C (repeated)
1 bar coda; 2 chords, perfect cadence
RHYTHM SECTION= tuba, sausaphone, guitar, double bass, banjo, drums, piano
MOOD= energetic, excited, busy
CONTEXT= 1910's, improvisation, New Orleans, Hot Jazz, Ragtime & Blues influences, 12 bar blues, sold over a million copies worldwide, polyphonic style
DEAD MAN BLUES- 1926, Jelly Roll Morton
funeral march by Chopin as intro
12 bar blues in Bb major
Tune A- clarinet solo
Tune B- cornet solo
Tune C- clarinet trio
Tune D- clarinet trio plus trombone countermelody
percussive crashes bars 2, 4 and 6 on the 4th beat of choruses
more collective improv
2 bar coda- clarinet trio based on Tune C
RHYTHM SECTION= piano, double bass, drums, banjo
MOOD=slightly more subdued, still upbeat
CONTEXT=vaudeville, comical twist, structurally typical, influenced by Dixieland style.
WEST END BLUES-1928, Louis Armstrong
Cadenza on trumpet as intro
dominant 7th chord to lead into 12 bar blues (roughly)
Tune A= trumpet melody with clarinet harmonising + trombone countermelody
Tune B= trombone collective improvisation-slurring
Tune C= **** singing in antiphony with the clarinet playing 'chalumeau' register
Tune D=Complex piano solo, hark back to Tune A, thinner rhythm section
Sequenced falling figure in piano
Grand brass stabs
Rising piano scale to end.
RHYTHM SECTION= piano, drums and double bass
MOOD=laid back, relaxed, bluesy feel, **** singing adds interest- trademark of Armstrong
CONTEXT=more complex, free style than Dead Man Blues, New Orleans.
SAVOY BLUES- 1927, Louis Armstrong
straight into Tune A- trumpet melody, instead of a head in
Tune B- slurred melody trumpet and trombone
Harmonic wall of sound
Guitar fill in
Guitar finger picking solo (unusual)
clarinet and trumpet playing in 3rds harmony, trombone glissandi (antiphony)
trumpet solo over collective improvisation
mini trumpet solo as coda, guitar chord (9th) to end
RHYTHM SECTION= piano, guitar, um-cha rhythm.
MOOD=cheerful, laid back, simple
CONTEXT= 20s, composed by Kid Ory, pure instrumental, influenced by Dixieland style.
IT DON'T MEAN A THING- 1931, Duke Ellington
piano descending um-cha chords as intro
trumpet fill ins
trombone solo (with mute)
trumpet (with mute) solo + violin
large, loud instrumental, Big Band Style
RHYTHM SECTION= drums, piano & double bass
MOOD=frenetic, excitable, energetic, grand
CONTEXT=in the charts for 6 weeks, predicts 'Swing Era', classical/jazz bridge, prohibition of alcohol, virtuoso playing, improv, syncopation, blues notes introduced
MOOD INDIGO- 1930, Duke Ellington
chromatic, complex piano intro
rapid, dissonant chord changes, lots of decoration
slurring melody- brass instruments (trombones, soprano sax)
clarinet solo, improvised
trumpet solo (with mute)
piano solo- fast runs, lots of instrumentation
collective improv section before slurring melody reoccurs
brass stabs and climaxial chord to end
RHYTHM SECTION=piano, double bass and drums
MOOD=laid back, weary, slurred
CONTEXT=introduced into Cotton Club, New York in 1930, unconventional use of instruments, prohibition of alcohol, virtuoso playing, improv, syncopation & blues notes introduced.
STOMPIN' AT THE SAVOY- Benny Goodman, 1936
4 bar introduction, 32 bar blues
1st chorus-classic 'swing' sound,
A phrase-low register unison saxophones
muted trumpets on every 3rd beat.
B phrase- slightly more active trumpets
A phrase-sax's lead, melody 2 notes per phrase, more elaborate response from trumpets
B phrase- Goodman plays clarinet solo over sax accompaniment
A phrase-trombone solo over saxophone layer.
B phrase- tenor sax solo, trombone returns in higher register
4th chorus-key change, trumpets take melody. Then another clarinet solo from Goodman.
RHYTHM SECTION=piano, drums, guitar, bass
MOOD=fun, catchy, 'swing' feel
CONTEXT= contrafact, 'king of swing', prohib. of alcohol, virtuoso style.
MOONLIGHT SERENADE-1939, Glenn Miller
straight into main theme- chromatic clarinet and saxophone melody
muted trumpet counter melody, wind instruments playing harmony = section 1
chromatic piano melody =section 2
section 1 repeated
section 2- climbing chromatic melody
section 3- tune shared betwen muted trumpet + clarinet and woodwinds
section 1- ff, antiphony, open harmonies
clarinet solo- lots of decoration
Section 1 back, with closed harmonies, ff
single chord to end
RHYTHM SECTION=simple plodding bass, swing rhythm on drums, piano
MOOD=rich, merged sound as opposed to earlier jazz-definite tune & accomp.
CONTEXT=bad quality of life, frequent turnovers, segregation, struggle to establish oneself.
IN THE MOOD, 1940, Glenn Miller
saxophone syncopated figure based on arpeggio
answered by brass stabs & percussive crashes on drums =intro
wood winds main melody based on arpeggio + rythmic puncutation in brass
wood winds melody in antiphony with trumpet
-short fill in based on the introduction, fanfare style, trumpets, loud-
phrases shared by 2 saxophones, 'tenor battle'
trumpet solo, lots of slides, jazzy feel
main melody back in- 'famous fade out'- no mutes just skillful control
everyone back in ff signalled by a nod, trombone tonic pedal
climbing chromatic scale with climaxial chord and tonic note to end
RHYTHM SECTION-drums, trombone, piano, bass
MOOD=catchy, suspense and tension building, excitable, energetic
CONTEXT=bad quality of life, frequent turnovers, segregation, based on a famous riff, topped charts in 1940, based on broken chords, written by 'Manone', made famous by Miller.
GROOVIN' HIGH- 1945, Dizzie Gillespie
sax playing a bar of melody over walking bass = intro
main motif= falling 3rd idea in antiphony with the piano =head in
virtuoso saxophone solo
trumpet plays melody- irregular phrases
guitar solo- unusual
coda- rythmically free character, high register trumpet played by DG himself
over a 12 bar blues pattern
RHYTHM SECTION=bass, drums, piano
MOOD=fast, complex, energetic
CONTEXT= rationing, struggle with war, travelling was a problem, Musicians Union formed in New York, based songs on jazz standards, example of a 'contrafact', famous trumpeter.
SALT PEANUTS-1947, Dizzie Gillespie
Lots of irregular phrases
highly unusual syncopation
accents, lots of 'dropping bombs'
hook line- salt PEAnuts, salt PEAnuts
RHYTHM SECTION- piano, drums, bass, guitar
MOOD=irregular, catchy, frantic
CONTEXT= war, rationing, travelling difficult, musicians union new york, based on jazz standards.
MISTERIOSO-1958, Thelonius Monk
4 bar intro solo piano =introduction
section 1- 12 bar blues, sixths on vibraphone, free rhythm section
section 2- 12 bar blues, collective improvisation, 15th on vibraphone, sustained notes
section 3-12 bar blues, piano, drum percussive crashes & bass. crushed notes, wholetone scale
trills, complex, disjointed melodic phrases spanning over 2-3 octaves
section 4- 12 bar blues, 6ths on vibraphone, piano playing rhythmic interjections
Rallantando, rapidly descending piano scale, returns to rising 6ths.
RHYTHM SECTION=bass, drums, piano
MOOD=disjointed, odd, dissonant
CONTEXT= post war, travelling still difficult, jazz standards.
ORNITHOLOGY-1946, Charlie Parker
2 bar drum solo as introduction
trumpet and saxophone share main melody, complex
piano sequencing figure
unison melody with short fill ins = head in
alto sax solo played by Parker himself
drums dropping bombs
muted trumpet solo, complex
tenor sax - raspy sound
return to head for 2 bars
RHYTHM SECTION=piano, drums, bass, guitar
MOOD=complex melodies, energetic, classically fast melodies
CONTEXT=example of a contrafact, post war (just), travelling difficult, Musicians Union, regarded as the song of the nightingale by Stranvinsky- harmonically + rhythmically complex.
RHAPSODY IN BLUE- 1924, Gershwin
clarinet glissando leads to Tune A
Tune B answered by brass
Tune A muted trumpet
Tune C piano solo
Tune A whole orchestra
Tune C ellaborated by piano, with hints of tune A, virtuoso, Gershwin himself
Tune A, C, A in whole orchestra, rhythmically different each time.
Tune D trumpets punch out tune with bright chordal decoration on the piano
Tune B hinted at during this calmer section, clarinets playing it.
Tune B whole orchestra, short bluesy solo breaks for clarinet, muted trumpet & muted trombone.
Tune E reeds and brass, piano chords punctuating
Tune E developed by whole orchestra
Tune B piano cadenza, added blues notes and decoration
Tune B solo piano then reeds with piano decoration and nod to tune C
Piano solo cadenza passage leads to tune E
Tune F, building up intensity, slower section, chromatic countermelody on piano
Tune F whole orchestra, suddenly faster tempo, fast repeated notes on the piano
Ascending scale leads to Tune B, orchestra syncopated punctuation
Tune A whole orchestra, finale, huge crescendo ff.
RHAPSODY IN BLUE- 1924, Gershwin cont...
-wrote a lot of musical theate music, well known for Porgy and Bess
-Paul Whiteman organised concert 'Experiment of American Music' and asked Gershwin to write this Jazz influenced concert piece
-Swing and syncopated rhythms, clarinet solos, chromaticisim, improvised feel, blues notes & extension chords all features of Jazz.
-no standard form
-slower sections indicative of that in the slow movement of a concerto e.g. Rachmaninov (Romantic era)
-was premiered in 1924, Gershwin hadn't finished writing it so signalled with a 'nod' to Whiteman to bring the orchestra back in. Rachmaninov in the audience- great pressure for Whiteman
-essentially, the length of a classical concerto with Jazz influences.
Shostakovich Jazz Suite
melodies passed between muted trumpet, soprano sax & trombone with countermelody on violin
change to a major key mid-way
antiphony- melody passed on every couple of bars between violin and tenor sax
piano fill ins
violin playing minor scalic patterns- give a 'klezmer' feel
harmonising sax family
playful xylophone solo, gliss as intro, comical, over tonic/dominant bass line
snare drum rolls- mockingly military feel
frequent key changes
sequenced melody, octave jumps
spiccato strings play opening melody
beat is punctuated
Shostakovich Jazz Suite cont...
...lyrical melody on alto sax
large, loud, decorated sections
violin solo- several transitory modulations
haiwaiin guitar solo- experimental
trombone gliss accompaniment, trumpet countermelody
staccato, chordal accomp. throughout
minor pedal point, violin solo and glockenspiel countermelody
drum roll/cymbal crash to finish.
composed and premiered in 1934
Shostakovich was interested in the Jazz scene of the USSR
Was asked to write a piece for a Leningrad dance jazz band
3 x saxophones, 2x trumpets,1x trombone, 1x violin, 1x double bass, 1x piano, 1x hawaiin guitar, 1x banjo, 1x glockenspiel, 1x xylophone, 1x snare drum, 1x cymbal, 1x woodblock.
EBONY CONCERTO, Stravinsky, 1946
complex & rhythmically aggressive style- hallmark of his orchestra writing e.g Rite of Spring
brass stabs, rhythmic interjections, harmonic dissonance
melody is subservient to rhythmic style & absent for large parts of music
dialogue between brass and woodwinds
more lyrical style
blues like melodies in solo clarinet, woodwinds and muted brass
essentially 'tonal', some of the harmony is chromatic.
disturbed, dissonant feel
alternates between slow and fast sections
menacing bass melody on baritone sax and double bass (archo-unusual for classical style)
fast, rhythmically lively sections- fragmented effect, tempo changes and sequenced melody
use of jazz effects; mutes, glissandi, flutter tonguing.
4 climax chords to end
drum fill ins throughout
syncopated rhythmic interjections
EBONY CONCERTO, Stravinsky, 1946 cont
see many of techniques used in Rite Of Spring- e.g fragmented melody, dissonance
Reciprocal influences Stravinsky and Jazz artists, e.g Charlie Parker
Stravinsky was Russian but spent last 32 years of life in USA
held in high respect by Jazz world
Experimental approach influenced Bebop
innovative use of rhythm, harmony- appealed to experimental Jazz musicians
Ebony Concerto was his first Jazz composition
not premiered by Benny Goodman until 1955, recorded and played prior to this however.
written for solo clarinet (ebony stick- Jazz term) and Jazz Band; tenor, alto & baritone sax, 5x trumpets, 3x trombones, french horn, piano, harp, guitar, double bass, percussion.
Written in standard 3 movements (fast, slow, fast)
Semitonal- used non-diatonic melody and unusual tonalities (although it is in a key)