4.3 Transport in humans

  • Created by: 14mut64
  • Created on: 12-05-19 10:23

Components of blood

  • Red blood cells
    • have no nucleus - so there is more haemoglobin can be carried
    • are bi-concave discs - which gives a large surface area to volume ratio
  • White blood cells
    • fight infection
    • lymphocytes make antibodies
    • phagocytes eat bacteria
  • Platelets
    • clot blood at site of wound; soluble fibrogen becomes insoluble fibrin
  • Plasma
    • the suspension that carries cells and components
    • transports CO2 ; urea; amino acids; glucose; hormones
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Labelled diagram of the Heart

Image result for heart

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the Heart

  • how is heart rate increased:
    • during exercise; muscles need more oxygen to respire aerobically and produce more carbon dioxide too
    • Adrenaline
  • Coronary heart disease:
    • caused by - lack of exercise; high sugar & fat diet (high cholesterol); smoking; hereditary genes; and diabetes
    • when cholesterol builds up, it can block arteries
    • when coronary arteries get blocked, O2 cannot react the heard, so the artery dies
    • when the artery dies, it causes a heart attack
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Arteries, Veins & Capillaries

Image result for arteries veins and capillaries

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Circulatory system

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the Heart cycle

  • Diastole:
    • atria relax
    • ventricles relax
    • bi + tricuspid valves open
    • semi-lunar valves shut
  • Atrial systole:
    • atria contract
    • ventricles relax
    • bi + tricuspid valves open
    • semi-lunar valves shut
  • Ventricular systole:
    • atria relax
    • ventricles contract
    • bi + tricuspid valves close
    • semi-lunar valves open
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