4.2.b Brazil Migration

  • Created by: lee8444
  • Created on: 21-02-20 16:27

Current patterns of immigration and emigration

  • Net loss of 1 million between 2000-2009
  • Net loss has slowed to 190,000 between 2010-2014
  • Increased migration between neighbouring countries, in particular, the Mercosur members as migration is easier
  • Slowing down of emigration of lower-skilled economic migrants to the USA
  • Increased emigration of highly-skilled workers to Europe, USA and Japan
  • Increase in immigrants from Haiti (earthquake) and West African countries using Ecuador and Chile as transit countries
  • Rise in labour migrants due to the World Cup in 2014 and the Olympics in 2016
  • Strong internal migration from northeast to southeast due to the largest cities being in the southeast
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Changes in migration overtime

  • Throughout the 20th Century, Brazil was a net recipient of immigrants
  • Europeans were attracted to Brazil due to the fertile soils which are great for coffee
  • Japanese were attracted to Brazil for the industrial sectors
  • Economic migration from surrounding countries, in particular, Argentina and Paraguay
  • Political migration from Bolivia, Angola and Lebanon
  • Immigration into Brazil has slowed in the last 15 years
  • Emigration out of Brazil has increased in the last 15 years
  • 1.77 million Brazilian-born people now live abroad
  • Many highly-skilled Brazilians are emigrating for economic reasons to ACs
  • Main destinations
    • 370,000 - USA, Japan
    • 140,000 - Portugal
  • Main country of birth
    • 140,000 - Portugal
    • 50,000 - Japan
    • 20,000 - USA
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Interdependence with Portugal

  • Long bi-lateral relationship
  • Politically, economically and socially similar countries
  • Brazil is a former colony of Portugal
  • For economic migrants, Portugal is a gateway to the EU for Brazilians wanting to live in Europe
  • Shared language and ancestry
  • Both have a well-developed diaspora
  • Migrant remittances in both directions
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Interdependence with USA

  • Many Brazilians migrate to the USA for both low-skilled and high-skilled jobs
  • Remittances are sent back to Brazil
  • Brazilians learn skills and then return to Brazil contributing to Brazilian development
  • Highly-skilled Brazilians migrating to the USA is increasing in recent years, in particular, in the tertiary sector
  • Strong links to education and teacher training
  • There have been trading agreements between Brazil and the USA in agriculture, trade, finance, education and defence
  • USAID helps Brazil with environmental support such as helping tribes to protect their land from forest fires to help forest governance and management
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Interdependence with Haiti

  • It is quite easy for Haitians to receive Brazilian visas
  • This is to reduce vulnerability to human trafficking
  • The devastating earthquake in 2010 caused humanitarian issues so many migrated to Brazil
  • The earthquake displaced 1.5 million people
  • Many Haitians are taking low-skilled jobs in Rio and other cities in southeast Brazil
  • They mainly work in agriculture
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Impact on EC, PS & SE

  • Immigration has positively impacted growth in the agriculture and manufacturing sectors
  • The recent arrival of highly-skilled professionals have contributed to entrepreneurship and innovation whilst reducing gaps in the labour market
  • Emigration to ACs has resulted in large amounts of remittances which boosts the Brazilian economy. Remittances amounted to $2.4 billion in 2014, 0.1% of GDP
  • Stable member of Mercosur providing free flow of trade and capital promoting integration
  • Stable bi-lateral flows with countries such as Portugal and the USA
  • An important receiver of environmental and political refugees by providing work visas
  • Inequalities between different ethnic groups. Mainly Brazilians of African descent
  • Housing provisions, access to services educational attainment and income
  • Poverty is generally in rural areas and in favelas which is where immigrants tend to live
  • Prejudice and discrimination in the labour market against black populations
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