Beginning of Collectivisation
Stalin argued that it was not a lack of food but poor distribution which caused for starvation in overpopulated areas of the countryside. Shortages during NEP were caused by rich peasants hoarding grain - known as KULAKS.
Kulaks - Theory
By hoarding farm produce, Kulaks kept prices high and made themselves rich at the expense of workers and poorer peasants. Peasants were encouraged to denounce Kulaks to OGPU.
How did Stalin plan to pay for industrialisation?
Kolkhozy - Collective farms run as co-operatives with pooled resources and shared labour/wages
Sozkhozy - State owned farms which paid peasants with a direct wage
Renewall of the terror of 1918-1920, peasants were encouraged to denounce their neighbours as kulaks. Land and property were seized and families attacked in a prelude to arrest and deportation by OGPU. Popularly organised in smaller communities by the Komsomol (Communist Youth Movement) and other Anti-Kulak Squads.
OGPU - succeeded the Cheka as the state security force
"Most Party officers thought that the whole point of de-Kulakisation was its value as an administrative measure, speeding up the tempos of collectivisaton" - Soviet Official at a later date.
Resistance to Collectivisation
What were the effects of collectivisation on the peasantry?
Dec. 1929 to Mar. 1930 nearly HALF the peasant farms un the USSR were collectivised.
Massive resistance: 30,000 arson attacks, Rural mass disturbances increased by 1/3
National famine - 1932 to 1933
Role of women: posed more aggressive resistance to guards than men "We let women do the talking" - were first effected as organisers of households. Felt they were less liable to face prosecution.
Fleeing to the cities - were food was being taken to supply rapid industrialisation, led to internal Passports controlling movements.
Stalin called a halt to collectivisation - "dizzy with success" and overzealous officials. Was restarted at a slower pace and by 1940 virtually the whole of the peasantry had been collectivised.